In recent years, tissue engineering studies have proposed several approaches to regenerate periodontium based on the use of three-dimensional (3D) tissue scaffolds alone or in association with periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). The rapid evolution of bioprinting has sped up classic regenerative medicine, making the fabrication of multilayered scaffolds-which are essential in targeting the periodontal ligament (PDL)-conceivable. Physiological mechanical loading is fundamental to generate this complex anatomical structure ex vivo. Indeed, loading induces the correct orientation of the fibers forming the PDL and maintains tissue homeostasis, whereas overloading or a failure to adapt to mechanical load can be at least in part responsible for a wrong tissue regeneration using PDLSCs. This review provides a brief overview of the most recent achievements in periodontal tissue engineering, with a particular focus on the use of PDLSCs, which are the best choice for regenerating PDL as well as alveolar bone and cementum. Different scaffolds associated with various manufacturing methods and data derived from the application of different mechanical loading protocols have been analyzed, demonstrating that periodontal tissue engineering represents a proof of concept with high potential for innovative therapies in the near future.

Challenges of Periodontal Tissue Engineering: Increasing Biomimicry through 3D Printing and Controlled Dynamic Environment

Roato, Ilaria
;
Masante, Beatrice;Putame, Giovanni;Mussano, Federico
2022-01-01

Abstract

In recent years, tissue engineering studies have proposed several approaches to regenerate periodontium based on the use of three-dimensional (3D) tissue scaffolds alone or in association with periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). The rapid evolution of bioprinting has sped up classic regenerative medicine, making the fabrication of multilayered scaffolds-which are essential in targeting the periodontal ligament (PDL)-conceivable. Physiological mechanical loading is fundamental to generate this complex anatomical structure ex vivo. Indeed, loading induces the correct orientation of the fibers forming the PDL and maintains tissue homeostasis, whereas overloading or a failure to adapt to mechanical load can be at least in part responsible for a wrong tissue regeneration using PDLSCs. This review provides a brief overview of the most recent achievements in periodontal tissue engineering, with a particular focus on the use of PDLSCs, which are the best choice for regenerating PDL as well as alveolar bone and cementum. Different scaffolds associated with various manufacturing methods and data derived from the application of different mechanical loading protocols have been analyzed, demonstrating that periodontal tissue engineering represents a proof of concept with high potential for innovative therapies in the near future.
2022
12
21
3878
3899
mechanical loading; mesenchymal stem cell; periodontal ligament regeneration; periodontitis; tissue engineering
Roato, Ilaria; Masante, Beatrice; Putame, Giovanni; Massai, Diana; Mussano, Federico
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1879981
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