: Neurocognitive impairments are common in people living with HIV. Some conditions, such as chronic inflammation, astrocyte infection and an impaired blood-brain barrier (BBBi), along with host genetic variants in transporter genes, may affect antiretroviral (ARV) exposure in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The aim of this study was to evaluate ARV CSF penetration according to compartmental inflammation, BBB permeability and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in drug transporter encoding genes. CSF neopterin (ELISA), plasma and CSF ARV concentrations (HPLC) and host genetic variants in ABCC2, HNF4α, SLCO1A2 and SLC22A6 (real-time PCR) were measured. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed for single ARV and classes. We included 259 participants providing 405 paired plasma and CSF samples. CSF/plasma ratios (CPR) showed an increase for NRTIs and nevirapine with low penetrations for the majority of ARVs. At bi-variate analysis, several associations, including the effect of BBBi (emtricitabine, raltegravir), age (zidovudine and darunavir), and high CSF neopterin (NRTIs and border-line for PIs) were suggested. An association was found between genetic variants and integrase strand transfer (ABCC2 and HNF4α), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (SLCO1A2), and protease inhibitors (SLC22A6). At multivariate analysis age, gender, BMI, and altered BBB were independent predictors of nucleoside reverse transcriptase CSF concentrations; age (for protease inhibitors) and body mass index and altered BBB (integrase strand transfer inhibitors) were also associated with ARV CSF exposure. We describe factors associated with CSF concentrations, showing that demographic, BBB integrity and, partially, genetic factors may be predictors of drug passage in the central nervous system.

Antiretroviral Levels in the Cerebrospinal Fluid: The Effect of Inflammation and Genetic Variants

Cusato, Jessica
Co-first
;
Avataneo, Valeria
Co-first
;
Antonucci, Miriam;Trunfio, Mattia;Marinaro, Letizia;Palermiti, Alice;Manca, Alessandra;Di Perri, Giovanni;Mula, Jacopo;Bonora, Stefano;D'Avolio, Antonio
;
Calcagno, Andrea
Last
2023-01-01

Abstract

: Neurocognitive impairments are common in people living with HIV. Some conditions, such as chronic inflammation, astrocyte infection and an impaired blood-brain barrier (BBBi), along with host genetic variants in transporter genes, may affect antiretroviral (ARV) exposure in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The aim of this study was to evaluate ARV CSF penetration according to compartmental inflammation, BBB permeability and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in drug transporter encoding genes. CSF neopterin (ELISA), plasma and CSF ARV concentrations (HPLC) and host genetic variants in ABCC2, HNF4α, SLCO1A2 and SLC22A6 (real-time PCR) were measured. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed for single ARV and classes. We included 259 participants providing 405 paired plasma and CSF samples. CSF/plasma ratios (CPR) showed an increase for NRTIs and nevirapine with low penetrations for the majority of ARVs. At bi-variate analysis, several associations, including the effect of BBBi (emtricitabine, raltegravir), age (zidovudine and darunavir), and high CSF neopterin (NRTIs and border-line for PIs) were suggested. An association was found between genetic variants and integrase strand transfer (ABCC2 and HNF4α), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (SLCO1A2), and protease inhibitors (SLC22A6). At multivariate analysis age, gender, BMI, and altered BBB were independent predictors of nucleoside reverse transcriptase CSF concentrations; age (for protease inhibitors) and body mass index and altered BBB (integrase strand transfer inhibitors) were also associated with ARV CSF exposure. We describe factors associated with CSF concentrations, showing that demographic, BBB integrity and, partially, genetic factors may be predictors of drug passage in the central nervous system.
2023
13
2
295
306
ART; CSF; neopterin; pharmacogenetics; pharmacokinetics
Cusato, Jessica; Avataneo, Valeria; Antonucci, Miriam; Trunfio, Mattia; Marinaro, Letizia; Palermiti, Alice; Manca, Alessandra; Di Perri, Giovanni; Mula, Jacopo; Bonora, Stefano; D'Avolio, Antonio; Calcagno, Andrea
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
diagnostics-13-00295-v2.pdf

Accesso aperto

Tipo di file: PDF EDITORIALE
Dimensione 1.19 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.19 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1886637
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 4
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 2
social impact