Simple Summary In many European countries, game meat consumption is related to the traditional hunting culture. Its demand and consumption are increasing, also due to the growing populations of wild ungulates. However, specific public health issues exist and should be taken into account. This review focuses on the causal agents, epidemiology, potential risk for human health and its management along the supply chain, including parasite detection at slaughtering and inactivation in meat, of three parasites (Alaria alata, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp.), which can be transmitted by the main mammalian game meat species in the EU: wild boar (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama), Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), moose (Alces alces), hare (Lepus europaeus) and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). By presenting the main issues and knowledge gaps, this study aims to contribute to an improved control supporting the risk analysis process. Game meat is increasingly appreciated and consumed in Europe, also due to the growing population of wild ungulates. In addition to interesting nutritional properties and market opportunities, game meat is characterized by some specific public health issues. This review focuses on the etiology, epidemiology, public health aspects and risk management along the supply chain, including parasite detection at slaughtering and inactivation in meat, of three selected foodborne parasitic hazards (Alaria alata, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp.) in the main mammalian game meat species in the EU: wild boar (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama), Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), moose (Alces alces), hare (Lepus europaeus) and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The presented data point out the main issues, and knowledge gaps as well as the potential for improved control in order to contribute to the risk analysis process. To pursue an effective management of these parasitic zoonoses, awareness raising should involve all figures in the supply chain, including hunters, restaurateurs and consumers. Human behaviour and the lack of knowledge regarding meat borne parasitic zoonoses and the health risks they pose seem to be the most important factors responsible for human infections. However, detection methods, starting from the sampling procedure, should be further developed and standardized in order to improve the collection of accurate and up-to-date epidemiological data.

A Review on Alaria alata, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp. in Mammalian Game Meat Consumed in Europe: Epidemiology, Risk Management and Future Directions

Armani, Andrea;Ferroglio, Ezio
2022-01-01

Abstract

Simple Summary In many European countries, game meat consumption is related to the traditional hunting culture. Its demand and consumption are increasing, also due to the growing populations of wild ungulates. However, specific public health issues exist and should be taken into account. This review focuses on the causal agents, epidemiology, potential risk for human health and its management along the supply chain, including parasite detection at slaughtering and inactivation in meat, of three parasites (Alaria alata, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp.), which can be transmitted by the main mammalian game meat species in the EU: wild boar (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama), Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), moose (Alces alces), hare (Lepus europaeus) and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). By presenting the main issues and knowledge gaps, this study aims to contribute to an improved control supporting the risk analysis process. Game meat is increasingly appreciated and consumed in Europe, also due to the growing population of wild ungulates. In addition to interesting nutritional properties and market opportunities, game meat is characterized by some specific public health issues. This review focuses on the etiology, epidemiology, public health aspects and risk management along the supply chain, including parasite detection at slaughtering and inactivation in meat, of three selected foodborne parasitic hazards (Alaria alata, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp.) in the main mammalian game meat species in the EU: wild boar (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama), Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), moose (Alces alces), hare (Lepus europaeus) and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The presented data point out the main issues, and knowledge gaps as well as the potential for improved control in order to contribute to the risk analysis process. To pursue an effective management of these parasitic zoonoses, awareness raising should involve all figures in the supply chain, including hunters, restaurateurs and consumers. Human behaviour and the lack of knowledge regarding meat borne parasitic zoonoses and the health risks they pose seem to be the most important factors responsible for human infections. However, detection methods, starting from the sampling procedure, should be further developed and standardized in order to improve the collection of accurate and up-to-date epidemiological data.
2022
12
3
263
272
foodborne parasites; hunting; wildlife
Guardone, Lisa; Armani, Andrea; Mancianti, Francesca; Ferroglio, Ezio
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1890922
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