Reducing protein intake in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) limits glomerular stress induced by hyperfiltration and can prevent the progression of kidney disease; data in pregnancy are limited. The aim of this study is to analyze the results obtained in CKD patients who followed a plant-based moderately protein-restricted diet during pregnancy in comparison with a propensity-score-matched cohort of CKD pregnancies on unrestricted diets. A total of 52 CKD pregnancies followed up with a protein-restricted plant-based diet (Torino, Italy) were matched with a propensity score based on kidney function and proteinuria with CKD pregnancies with unrestricted protein intake (Cagliari Italy). Outcomes included preterm (<37 weeks) and very preterm (<34 weeks) delivery and giving birth to a small-for-gestational-age baby. The median age in our cohort was 34 years, 63.46% of women were primiparous, and the median body mass index (BMI) was 23.15 kg/m(2) with 13.46% of obese subjects. No statistical differences were found between women on a plant-based diet and women who were not in terms of age, parity, BMI, obesity, CKD stage, timing of referral, or cause of CKD. No differences were found between the two groups regarding the week of delivery. However, the combined negative outcome (birth before 37 completed gestational weeks or birth-weight centile <10) occurred less frequently in women following the diet than in women in the control group (61.54% versus 80.77%; p = 0.03). The lower risk was confirmed in a multivariable analysis adjusted for renal function and proteinuria (OR: 0.260 [Q1:0.093-Q3:0.724]; p = 0.010), in which the increase in proteinuria from the first to the last check-up before delivery was lower in patients on plant-based diets (median from 0.80 to 1.87 g/24 h; p: ns) than in controls (0.63 to 2.39 g/24 h p < 0.0001). Plant-based, moderately protein-restricted diets in pregnancy in patients with CKD are associated with a lower risk of preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age babies; the effect may be mediated by better stabilization of proteinuria.

Plant-Based Diets Improve Maternal-Fetal Outcomes in CKD Pregnancies

Attini, Rossella;Leone, Filomena;Casula, Viola;Tomasi Cont, Alice;Dalmasso, Eleonora;Masturzo, Bianca;Revelli, Alberto;Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara
2022-01-01

Abstract

Reducing protein intake in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) limits glomerular stress induced by hyperfiltration and can prevent the progression of kidney disease; data in pregnancy are limited. The aim of this study is to analyze the results obtained in CKD patients who followed a plant-based moderately protein-restricted diet during pregnancy in comparison with a propensity-score-matched cohort of CKD pregnancies on unrestricted diets. A total of 52 CKD pregnancies followed up with a protein-restricted plant-based diet (Torino, Italy) were matched with a propensity score based on kidney function and proteinuria with CKD pregnancies with unrestricted protein intake (Cagliari Italy). Outcomes included preterm (<37 weeks) and very preterm (<34 weeks) delivery and giving birth to a small-for-gestational-age baby. The median age in our cohort was 34 years, 63.46% of women were primiparous, and the median body mass index (BMI) was 23.15 kg/m(2) with 13.46% of obese subjects. No statistical differences were found between women on a plant-based diet and women who were not in terms of age, parity, BMI, obesity, CKD stage, timing of referral, or cause of CKD. No differences were found between the two groups regarding the week of delivery. However, the combined negative outcome (birth before 37 completed gestational weeks or birth-weight centile <10) occurred less frequently in women following the diet than in women in the control group (61.54% versus 80.77%; p = 0.03). The lower risk was confirmed in a multivariable analysis adjusted for renal function and proteinuria (OR: 0.260 [Q1:0.093-Q3:0.724]; p = 0.010), in which the increase in proteinuria from the first to the last check-up before delivery was lower in patients on plant-based diets (median from 0.80 to 1.87 g/24 h; p: ns) than in controls (0.63 to 2.39 g/24 h p < 0.0001). Plant-based, moderately protein-restricted diets in pregnancy in patients with CKD are associated with a lower risk of preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age babies; the effect may be mediated by better stabilization of proteinuria.
2022
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19
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chronic kidney disease; plant-based diets; preeclampsia; pregnancy complications; preterm delivery; small for gestational age
Attini, Rossella; Leone, Filomena; Chatrenet, Antoine; Longhitano, Elisa; Casula, Viola; Tomasi Cont, Alice; Zaccaria, Gaia; Dalmasso, Eleonora; Manzione, Ana Maria; Masturzo, Bianca; Torreggiani, Massimo; Revelli, Alberto; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1891766
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