Positive motor responses have been used in neurosurgery for the identification of motor structures. With the term "negative motor responses" (NMRs) a complete inhibition of movement without loss of muscle tone or consciousness is meant. Papers already exist in the literature regarding cortical areas in which such NMRs are evoked, the so-called "negative motor areas" (NMAs), but their location and functional meaning are still poorly understood. This paper discusses the anatomy of the NMAs of the human brain, in light of our brain mapping experience. 21 patients underwent awake surgery and direct electrical stimulation (DES) was performed using bipolar electrodes. Excision was interrupted when functional responses were intraoperatively identified through DES. The labeled mapping sites were recorded by photography prior to and following tumor resection. Results depicting a probabilistic map of negative motor network anatomy were retrospectively analyzed. Our findings strongly support the fact that the precentral gyrus, classical site of the of the Primary Motor Areas, is also strongly involved in generating NMRs. The distribution of NMAs was noted not to be as rigid as previously described, ranging in different brain areas with a somatotopic arrangement. Presented anatomical results are consistent with the literature, but the exact functional meaning of NMAs and their subcortical connectivity is still far from being completely understood. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Exploring the anatomy of negative motor areas (NMAs): Findings in awake surgery

Monticelli, Matteo;Zeppa, Pietro;Altieri, Roberto;Veneziani Santonio, Filippo;Cofano, Fabio;Zenga, Francesco;Ducati, Alessandro;Garbossa, Diego
2020-01-01

Abstract

Positive motor responses have been used in neurosurgery for the identification of motor structures. With the term "negative motor responses" (NMRs) a complete inhibition of movement without loss of muscle tone or consciousness is meant. Papers already exist in the literature regarding cortical areas in which such NMRs are evoked, the so-called "negative motor areas" (NMAs), but their location and functional meaning are still poorly understood. This paper discusses the anatomy of the NMAs of the human brain, in light of our brain mapping experience. 21 patients underwent awake surgery and direct electrical stimulation (DES) was performed using bipolar electrodes. Excision was interrupted when functional responses were intraoperatively identified through DES. The labeled mapping sites were recorded by photography prior to and following tumor resection. Results depicting a probabilistic map of negative motor network anatomy were retrospectively analyzed. Our findings strongly support the fact that the precentral gyrus, classical site of the of the Primary Motor Areas, is also strongly involved in generating NMRs. The distribution of NMAs was noted not to be as rigid as previously described, ranging in different brain areas with a somatotopic arrangement. Presented anatomical results are consistent with the literature, but the exact functional meaning of NMAs and their subcortical connectivity is still far from being completely understood. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
2020
73
219
223
Monticelli, Matteo; Zeppa, Pietro; Altieri, Roberto; Veneziani Santonio, Filippo; Cofano, Fabio; Melcarne, Antonio; Junemann, Carola Vera; Zenga, Francesco; Sabatino, Giovanni; La Rocca, Giuseppe; Della Pepa, Giuseppe Maria; Ducati, Alessandro; Garbossa, Diego
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1901776
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