Multiple sclerosis (MS) primarily affects adult females. However, in the last decades, rising incidence and prevalence have been observed for demographic extremes, such as pediatric-onset MS (POMS; occurring before 18 years of age) and late-onset MS (corresponding to an onset above 50 years). These categories show peculiar clinical-pathogenetic characteristics, aging processes and disease courses, therapeutic options, and unmet needs. Nonetheless, several open questions are still pending. POMS patients display an important contribution of multiple genetic and environmental factors such as EBV, while in LOMS, hormonal changes and pollution may represent disease triggers. In both categories, immunosenescence emerges as a pathogenic driver of the disease, particularly for LOMS. In both populations, patient and caregiver engagement are essential from the diagnosis communication to early treatment of disease-modifying therapy (DMTs), which in the elderly population appears more complex and less proven in terms of efficacy and safety. Digital technologies (e.g., exergames and e-training) have recently emerged with promising results, particularly in treating and following motor and cognitive deficits. However, this offer seems more feasible for POMS, being LOMS less familiar with digital technology. In this narrative review, we discuss how the aging process influences the pathogenesis, disease course, and therapeutic options of both POMS and LOMS. Finally, we evaluate the impact of new digital communication tools, which greatly interest the current and future management of POMS and LOMS patients.

Aging in multiple sclerosis: from childhood to old age, etiopathogenesis, and unmet needs: a narrative review

Clerico, Marinella
Co-last
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) primarily affects adult females. However, in the last decades, rising incidence and prevalence have been observed for demographic extremes, such as pediatric-onset MS (POMS; occurring before 18 years of age) and late-onset MS (corresponding to an onset above 50 years). These categories show peculiar clinical-pathogenetic characteristics, aging processes and disease courses, therapeutic options, and unmet needs. Nonetheless, several open questions are still pending. POMS patients display an important contribution of multiple genetic and environmental factors such as EBV, while in LOMS, hormonal changes and pollution may represent disease triggers. In both categories, immunosenescence emerges as a pathogenic driver of the disease, particularly for LOMS. In both populations, patient and caregiver engagement are essential from the diagnosis communication to early treatment of disease-modifying therapy (DMTs), which in the elderly population appears more complex and less proven in terms of efficacy and safety. Digital technologies (e.g., exergames and e-training) have recently emerged with promising results, particularly in treating and following motor and cognitive deficits. However, this offer seems more feasible for POMS, being LOMS less familiar with digital technology. In this narrative review, we discuss how the aging process influences the pathogenesis, disease course, and therapeutic options of both POMS and LOMS. Finally, we evaluate the impact of new digital communication tools, which greatly interest the current and future management of POMS and LOMS patients.
2023
14
1207617
1207617
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2023.1207617/full
aging; engagement; immunosenescence; late-onset; multiple sclerosis; pediatric-onset; risk factors; unmet need
Capasso, Nicola; Virgilio, Eleonora; Covelli, Antonio; Giovannini, Beatrice; Foschi, Matteo; Montini, Federico; Nasello, Martina; Nilo, Annacarmen; Prestipino, Elio; Schirò, Giuseppe; Sperandei, Silvia; Clerico, Marinella; Lanzillo, Roberta
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1944111
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