Background & aims: Nephrotoxicity of intravenous iodinated contrast media (ICM) in cirrhosis is still a debated issue, due to scarce, low-quality and conflicting evidence. This study aims to evaluate the incidence and predisposing factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with cirrhosis undergoing contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). Methods: We performed a prospective, multicenter, cohort study including 444 inpatients, 148 with cirrhosis (cohort 1) and 163 without cirrhosis (cohort 3) undergoing CECT and 133 with cirrhosis (cohort 2) unexposed to ICM. Kidney function parameters were assessed at T0, 48-72 h (T1), 5 and 7 days after CECT/enrollment. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (U-NGAL) was measured in 50 consecutive patients from cohort 1 and 50 from cohort 2 as an early biomarker of tubular damage. Results: AKI incidence was not significantly increased in patients with cirrhosis undergoing CECT (4.8%, 1.5%, 2.5% in cohorts 1, 2, 3 respectively, p = n.s.). Most AKI cases were mild and transient. The presence of concomitant infections was the only independent predictive factor of contrast-induced AKI (odds ratio 22.18; 95% CI 2.87-171.22; p = 0.003). No significant modifications of U-NGAL between T0 and T1 were detected, neither in cohort 1 nor in cohort 2 (median ΔU-NGAL: +0.2 [-7.6 to +5.5] ng/ml, +0.0 [-6.8 to +9.5] ng/ml, respectively [p = 0.682]). Conclusions: AKI risk after CECT in cirrhosis is low and not significantly different from that of the general population or of the cirrhotic population unexposed to ICM. It mostly consists of mild and rapidly resolving episodes of renal dysfunction and it is not associated with tubular kidney injury. Patients with ongoing infections appear to be the only ones at higher risk of AKI. Impact and implications: Nephrotoxicity due to intravenous iodinated contrast media (ICM) in patients with cirrhosis is still a debated issue, as the available evidence is limited and based on very heterogeneous studies, often conducted on small and retrospective cohorts. In this prospective three-cohort study we found that intravenous administration of ICM was associated with a low risk of AKI, similar to that of the general population and to that of patients with cirrhosis unexposed to ICM. Patients with ongoing infections were the only ones to have a significantly increased risk of contrast-induced AKI. Therefore, the actual recommendations of performing contrast imaging studies cautiously in cirrhosis do not seem to be reasonable anymore, with the exception of infected patients, who have a significantly higher risk of contrast-induced AKI.

A prospective, multicenter, three-cohort study evaluating contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients with cirrhosis

Campion, Daniela
First
;
Ponzo, Paola;Caviglia, Gian Paolo;Sanavia, Tiziana;Frigo, Francesco;Bonetto, Silvia;Giovo, Ilaria;Bugianesi, Elisabetta;Mengozzi, Giulio;Marzano, Alfredo;Saracco, Giorgio Maria;Alessandria, Carlo
Last
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background & aims: Nephrotoxicity of intravenous iodinated contrast media (ICM) in cirrhosis is still a debated issue, due to scarce, low-quality and conflicting evidence. This study aims to evaluate the incidence and predisposing factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with cirrhosis undergoing contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). Methods: We performed a prospective, multicenter, cohort study including 444 inpatients, 148 with cirrhosis (cohort 1) and 163 without cirrhosis (cohort 3) undergoing CECT and 133 with cirrhosis (cohort 2) unexposed to ICM. Kidney function parameters were assessed at T0, 48-72 h (T1), 5 and 7 days after CECT/enrollment. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (U-NGAL) was measured in 50 consecutive patients from cohort 1 and 50 from cohort 2 as an early biomarker of tubular damage. Results: AKI incidence was not significantly increased in patients with cirrhosis undergoing CECT (4.8%, 1.5%, 2.5% in cohorts 1, 2, 3 respectively, p = n.s.). Most AKI cases were mild and transient. The presence of concomitant infections was the only independent predictive factor of contrast-induced AKI (odds ratio 22.18; 95% CI 2.87-171.22; p = 0.003). No significant modifications of U-NGAL between T0 and T1 were detected, neither in cohort 1 nor in cohort 2 (median ΔU-NGAL: +0.2 [-7.6 to +5.5] ng/ml, +0.0 [-6.8 to +9.5] ng/ml, respectively [p = 0.682]). Conclusions: AKI risk after CECT in cirrhosis is low and not significantly different from that of the general population or of the cirrhotic population unexposed to ICM. It mostly consists of mild and rapidly resolving episodes of renal dysfunction and it is not associated with tubular kidney injury. Patients with ongoing infections appear to be the only ones at higher risk of AKI. Impact and implications: Nephrotoxicity due to intravenous iodinated contrast media (ICM) in patients with cirrhosis is still a debated issue, as the available evidence is limited and based on very heterogeneous studies, often conducted on small and retrospective cohorts. In this prospective three-cohort study we found that intravenous administration of ICM was associated with a low risk of AKI, similar to that of the general population and to that of patients with cirrhosis unexposed to ICM. Patients with ongoing infections were the only ones to have a significantly increased risk of contrast-induced AKI. Therefore, the actual recommendations of performing contrast imaging studies cautiously in cirrhosis do not seem to be reasonable anymore, with the exception of infected patients, who have a significantly higher risk of contrast-induced AKI.
2024
80
1
62
72
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168827823051760?via=ihub
acute kidney injury; cirrhosis; contrast-enhanced computerized tomography; iodinated contrast media; urinary NGAL
Campion, Daniela; Ponzo, Paola; Risso, Alessandro; Caropreso, Paola; Caviglia, Gian Paolo; Sanavia, Tiziana; Frigo, Francesco; Bonetto, Silvia; Giovo, Ilaria; Rizzo, Martina; Martini, Silvia; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Mengozzi, Giulio; Marzano, Alfredo; Manca, Aldo; Saracco, Giorgio Maria; Alessandria, Carlo
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1945836
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