Down syndrome (DS) is a complex chromosomal disorder considered as a genetically determined form of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Maintenance of brain cholesterol homeostasis is essential for brain functioning and development, and its dysregulation is associated with AD neuroinflammation and oxidative damage. Brain cholesterol imbalances also likely occur in DS, concurring with the precocious AD-like neurodegeneration. In this pilot study, we analyzed, in the brain of the Ts2Cje (Ts2) mouse model of DS, the expression of genes encoding key enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism and of the levels of cholesterol and its main precursors and products of its metabolism (i.e., oxysterols). The results showed, in Ts2 mice compared to euploid mice, the downregulation of the transcription of the genes encoding the enzymes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the latter originally recognized as an indicator of AD, and the consequent reduction in total cholesterol levels. Moreover, the expression of genes encoding enzymes responsible for brain cholesterol oxidation and the amounts of the resulting oxysterols were modified in Ts2 mouse brains, and the levels of cholesterol autoxidation products were increased, suggesting an exacerbation of cerebral oxidative stress. We also observed an enhanced inflammatory response in Ts2 mice, underlined by the upregulation of the transcription of the genes encoding for α-interferon and interleukin-6, two cytokines whose synthesis is increased in the brains of AD patients. Overall, these results suggest that DS and AD brains share cholesterol cycle derangements and altered oxysterol levels, which may contribute to the oxidative and inflammatory events involved in both diseases.

Altered brain cholesterol machinery in a Down syndrome mouse model: a possible common feature with Alzheimer’s disease

Erica Staurenghi
Co-first
;
Gabriella Testa
Co-first
;
Rebecca Cecci;Lucrezia Floro;Serena Giannelli;Gabriella Leonarduzzi;Barbara Sottero
Co-last
;
Paola Gamba
Co-last
2024-01-01

Abstract

Down syndrome (DS) is a complex chromosomal disorder considered as a genetically determined form of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Maintenance of brain cholesterol homeostasis is essential for brain functioning and development, and its dysregulation is associated with AD neuroinflammation and oxidative damage. Brain cholesterol imbalances also likely occur in DS, concurring with the precocious AD-like neurodegeneration. In this pilot study, we analyzed, in the brain of the Ts2Cje (Ts2) mouse model of DS, the expression of genes encoding key enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism and of the levels of cholesterol and its main precursors and products of its metabolism (i.e., oxysterols). The results showed, in Ts2 mice compared to euploid mice, the downregulation of the transcription of the genes encoding the enzymes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the latter originally recognized as an indicator of AD, and the consequent reduction in total cholesterol levels. Moreover, the expression of genes encoding enzymes responsible for brain cholesterol oxidation and the amounts of the resulting oxysterols were modified in Ts2 mouse brains, and the levels of cholesterol autoxidation products were increased, suggesting an exacerbation of cerebral oxidative stress. We also observed an enhanced inflammatory response in Ts2 mice, underlined by the upregulation of the transcription of the genes encoding for α-interferon and interleukin-6, two cytokines whose synthesis is increased in the brains of AD patients. Overall, these results suggest that DS and AD brains share cholesterol cycle derangements and altered oxysterol levels, which may contribute to the oxidative and inflammatory events involved in both diseases.
2024
13
4
435
454
https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3921/13/4/435
Down syndrome; Alzheimer’s disease; cholesterol; oxysterols; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress; DHCR24; HMGCR; CYP46A1
Erica Staurenghi; Gabriella Testa; Valerio Leoni; Rebecca Cecci; Lucrezia Floro; Serena Giannelli; Eugenio Barone; Marzia Perluigi; Gabriella Leonarduzzi; Barbara Sottero; Paola Gamba
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1967476
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