Immunosuppressive therapy (IST) with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin A (CyA) is the standard treatment for children with acquired aplastic anaemia (AAA) lacking a matched donor. Survival rates of more than 80% at 5 years are achieved, but the response is drug-dependent in 15–25% of cases. This study, of 42 consecutive children with AAA treated with IST, assessed the incidence of CyA-dependence, CyA and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) tapering schedules and the impact of drug accumulation on progression to myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukaemia (MDS/AML). Overall survival was 83% at 10 years. CyA-dependence without a predictive marker was observed in 18% of responders. Probability of discontinuing CyA was 60·5% at 10 years; a slow CyA tapering schedule was performed in 84% of patients; the cumulative incidence of relapse was 16% at 10 years. Relapse risk was significantly associated with rapid CyA discontinuation: 60% compared to 7·6% in the slow tapering group (P = 0·001). Cumulative incidence of MDS/AML was 8% at 10 years, with a significant correlation with both G-CSF cumulative dose and second IST. This long-term follow-up of children with AAA shows that IST with a slow CyA tapering course is an effective treatment with a low-relapse rate in these cases.

Cyclosporin A response and dependence in children with acquired aplastic anaemia: a multicentre retrospective study with long-term observation follow-up

QUARELLO, Paola;RAMENGHI, Ugo;
2008-01-01

Abstract

Immunosuppressive therapy (IST) with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin A (CyA) is the standard treatment for children with acquired aplastic anaemia (AAA) lacking a matched donor. Survival rates of more than 80% at 5 years are achieved, but the response is drug-dependent in 15–25% of cases. This study, of 42 consecutive children with AAA treated with IST, assessed the incidence of CyA-dependence, CyA and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) tapering schedules and the impact of drug accumulation on progression to myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukaemia (MDS/AML). Overall survival was 83% at 10 years. CyA-dependence without a predictive marker was observed in 18% of responders. Probability of discontinuing CyA was 60·5% at 10 years; a slow CyA tapering schedule was performed in 84% of patients; the cumulative incidence of relapse was 16% at 10 years. Relapse risk was significantly associated with rapid CyA discontinuation: 60% compared to 7·6% in the slow tapering group (P = 0·001). Cumulative incidence of MDS/AML was 8% at 10 years, with a significant correlation with both G-CSF cumulative dose and second IST. This long-term follow-up of children with AAA shows that IST with a slow CyA tapering course is an effective treatment with a low-relapse rate in these cases.
2008
140
2
197
205
aplastic anaemia; children; therapy
Saracco P, Quarello P, Iori AP, Zecca M, Longoni D, Svahn J, Varotto S, Del Vecchio GC, Dufour C, Ramenghi U, Bacigalupo A, Locasciulli A; Bone Marrow Failure Study Group of the AIEOP (Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology Oncology)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/26725
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