Some complications of liver transplantation appear as aspecific clinical and blood test abnormalities; others--e.g., hepatic artery thrombosis in the immediate postoperative period and stenosis of the biliary anastomosis before T-tube removal--require early diagnosis. These considerations justify the need of frequent radiologic examination in both the complicated course and the follow-up. The authors report their experience in 59 adult patients submitted to liver transplantation for irreversible liver disease in advanced stage (49 with cirrhosis, 10 with HCC; 5 with cholestatic hepatopathy; 3 with fulminant hepatitis; 1 with Budd-Chiari syndrome; 1 with metastatic APUDoma). Two hundred and sixty-three radiological examinations were performed (Doppler US, CT, angiography and cholangiography) which showed numerous early and delayed complications: 13 of them were treated with interventional radiology maneuvers (US-or CT-guided percutaneous drainage of fluid collections, biliary drainage, bilioplasty, arterial transcatheter embolization). Our results demonstrate that diagnostic and operative radiology are essential for the success of liver transplantation; integrated imaging is particularly important in the diagnosis of complications, while interventional radiology techniques can be usefully employed in their treatment.
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