Upper airways inflammations (rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, polyposis, otitis, pharyngitis, etc) the pathologies most commonly encountered in the daily clinical practice and they represent, because of the high sanitary costs, an important social problem. The Literature suggests that almost all the symptoms, which characterize upper airways inflammations, are induced by the production of prostaglandins by cyclooxigenase (COX); it is obvious the need of a therapeutic action at this level. The non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) block the activity of both COX-1 and COX-2, whereas the selective inhibitors of COX-2 (the coxibs) act only on this isoform. Actually, the therapeutic effects of both NSAIDs and coxibs are due to their actions on COX-2, while the system toxicity of NSAIDs (gastrointestinal perforation or ulcer, reduction of glomerular filtration rate, prolongation of bleeding time) is ascribable to the inference of these drugs with the COX-1. In conclusion, a correct approach to ENT inflammations must implies the use of drugs efficacious against the typical symptoms of the inflammatory process (and specifically the symptom: pain), eventually joined with an appropriate antibiotic treatment; in this context, a selective inhibitor of COX-2 short course treatment offers the double advantage of managing the inflammation and avoiding damages to the gastric mucosa.
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