Toxocariasis due to soil contamination from dog and cat faeces has been long described and represents one of the zoonotic risk linked with pets presence in human settlements. Soil samples were collected from private backyards and school playgrounds in Turin and tested for the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs. Samples from dogs and cats living in the same area were also analysed and our results seem to indicate a decrease in soil contamination respect to a survey carried out in 1985. Considering that recently new foci of Canine Leishmaniosis and the presence of competent sand fly vectors have also been reported in the North-West of Italy, a survey was carried out on dogs and humans living in Asti province. To assess the risk of local Leishmania infantum transmission between dog and humans, samples were also analysed by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Our results have shown that more than 10% of autochthonous dogs and human being living in this previously non-endemic area have been infected by L. infantum. The identity of PCR-RFLP patterns from 3 human clinical cases and from the dogs of one of them allows us to confirm the autochthonous origin of these cases.
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