In asthma patients, microaspiration of acid into the lower airways (ie, airway acidification) causes such respiratory responses as cough and bronchoconstriction. The mechanism of bronchoconstriction induced by airway acidification is unknown, although evidence is emerging that increasing proton concentrations in airway tissues can activate a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons, so-called capsaicin-sensitive primary sensory neurons, that contain such neuropeptides as the tachykinins substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA). Protons activate a capsaicin-operated channel/receptor, located in the afferents of capsaicin-sensitive neurons, with the subsequent opening of ion channels that are permeable to sodium, potassium, and calcium ions. This event initiates a propagated action potential that antidromically depolarizes collateral fibers and triggers neuropeptide release from nerve fiber varicosities. The tachykinins SP and NKA, released from terminals of primary sensory neurons in peripheral tissues, cause all the major signs of inflammation (neurogenic inflammation) by means of activation of NK(1) and NK(2) receptors. Exposure of the airways to acidic solutions stimulates sensory nerve endings of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons and causes different airway responses, including bronchoconstriction. Recently, the NK(2), and to a lesser extent the NK(1), receptors have been shown to be involved with citric acid-induced bronchoconstriction in the guinea pig, which is in part mediated by endogenously released bradykinin. Tachykinins and bradykinin, released by airway acidification, could also modulate citric acid-induced bronchoconstriction by their ability to subsequently release the epithelially derived bronchoprotective nitric oxide (NO). Further study with selective tachykinin NK(1) and NK(2) agonists demonstrated that only the septide-insensitive tachykinin NK(1) receptor releases NO. Thus, bronchoconstriction induced by citric acid inhalation in the guinea pig, mainly caused by the tachykinin NK(2) receptor, is counteracted by bronchoprotective NO after activation of bradykinin B(2) and tachykinin NK(1) receptors in airway epithelium. If a similar mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma associated with gastroesophageal reflux in the respiratory tract, new therapeutic strategies should be investigated.

Mechanisms of citric acid-induced bronchoconstriction.

RICCIARDOLO, Fabio Luigi Massimo
2001

Abstract

In asthma patients, microaspiration of acid into the lower airways (ie, airway acidification) causes such respiratory responses as cough and bronchoconstriction. The mechanism of bronchoconstriction induced by airway acidification is unknown, although evidence is emerging that increasing proton concentrations in airway tissues can activate a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons, so-called capsaicin-sensitive primary sensory neurons, that contain such neuropeptides as the tachykinins substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA). Protons activate a capsaicin-operated channel/receptor, located in the afferents of capsaicin-sensitive neurons, with the subsequent opening of ion channels that are permeable to sodium, potassium, and calcium ions. This event initiates a propagated action potential that antidromically depolarizes collateral fibers and triggers neuropeptide release from nerve fiber varicosities. The tachykinins SP and NKA, released from terminals of primary sensory neurons in peripheral tissues, cause all the major signs of inflammation (neurogenic inflammation) by means of activation of NK(1) and NK(2) receptors. Exposure of the airways to acidic solutions stimulates sensory nerve endings of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons and causes different airway responses, including bronchoconstriction. Recently, the NK(2), and to a lesser extent the NK(1), receptors have been shown to be involved with citric acid-induced bronchoconstriction in the guinea pig, which is in part mediated by endogenously released bradykinin. Tachykinins and bradykinin, released by airway acidification, could also modulate citric acid-induced bronchoconstriction by their ability to subsequently release the epithelially derived bronchoprotective nitric oxide (NO). Further study with selective tachykinin NK(1) and NK(2) agonists demonstrated that only the septide-insensitive tachykinin NK(1) receptor releases NO. Thus, bronchoconstriction induced by citric acid inhalation in the guinea pig, mainly caused by the tachykinin NK(2) receptor, is counteracted by bronchoprotective NO after activation of bradykinin B(2) and tachykinin NK(1) receptors in airway epithelium. If a similar mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma associated with gastroesophageal reflux in the respiratory tract, new therapeutic strategies should be investigated.
111(Suppl. 8A)
18S
24S
RICCIARDOLO FLM
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/38744
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