In the last decades, the conditions of overweight and obesity and the sedentary behavior increased a lot in the whole western society, and particularly among children and adolescents. This exploratory and multimethod study is aimed at investigating the children of the first and of the second classes at primary school in a city in Northern Italy, exploring the relationships among active and passive leisure activities (as precursors of more or less healthy life-styles), physical health, physical abilities, and relational adjustment. The specific goals are: 1) to describe: a) BMI (measured by a electronic balance); b) physical abilities and respect of social rules (observed by the teachers of physical activity on behavioral check-list); c) involvement in leisure activities with peers and relationships with peers (both: questionnaire by children; second: opinions of the teachers); 2) to investigate the relationships among the above mentioned aspects. Two hundred-seventy-two children (47% boys) aged from 6 to 8 years (M = 6.85) participated. The main findings (by the way of descriptive statistics, Linear and Logistic Regression) underlined that: 1) a) 38% of the children participate regularly at physical activity; b) boys are involved in sedentary activity and overweight more frequently than girls; c) physical abilities are sufficient in less than the half of participants; d) the great majority of the children has a wide friendship network but they do not respect much social rules; e) girls respect social rules more frequently than boys; besides they are more prosocial and less aggressive; 2) passive leisure activity are positively related at being overweight and negatively related at number of friends, respect of social rules, and prosocial behavior; active activity are positively related to the orientation in the space.
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