BACKGROUND: Alport syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous nephropathy characterized by glomerular basement membrane lesions often associated with hearing loss and ocular anomalies. While the X-linked and the autosomal recessive forms are well known, the autosomal dominant form is not well acknowledged. METHODS: We have clinically investigated 38 patients with a diagnosis of autosomal dominant Alport syndrome belonging to eight different families. The analysis of the COL4A4 gene was performed by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and automated DNA sequencing. RESULTS: In our cohort of patients, only 24.3% (9/37) reached end-stage renal disease, at the mean age of 51.2 years. Four patients had hearing loss (13.3%) and none ocular changes. Molecular analysis revealed eight novel private COL4A4 gene mutations: three frameshift, three missense and two splice-site mutations. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate autosomal dominant Alport syndrome as a disease with a low risk of ocular and hearing anomalies but with a significant risk to develop renal failure although at an older age than the X-linked form. We were unable to demonstrate a genotype-phenotype correlation. Altogether, these data make difficult the differential diagnosis with the benign familial haematuria due to heterozygous mutations of COL4A4 and COL4A3, especially in young patients, and with the X-linked form of Alport syndrome in families where only females are affected. A correct diagnosis and prognosis is based on a comprehensive clinical investigation in as many family members as possible associated with a broadly formal genetic analysis of the pedigree.

Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome: molecular analysis of the COL4A4 gene and clinical outcome

CIRILLO, Margherita;AMOROSO, Antonio;GIACHINO, Daniela Francesca;
2009

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Alport syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous nephropathy characterized by glomerular basement membrane lesions often associated with hearing loss and ocular anomalies. While the X-linked and the autosomal recessive forms are well known, the autosomal dominant form is not well acknowledged. METHODS: We have clinically investigated 38 patients with a diagnosis of autosomal dominant Alport syndrome belonging to eight different families. The analysis of the COL4A4 gene was performed by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and automated DNA sequencing. RESULTS: In our cohort of patients, only 24.3% (9/37) reached end-stage renal disease, at the mean age of 51.2 years. Four patients had hearing loss (13.3%) and none ocular changes. Molecular analysis revealed eight novel private COL4A4 gene mutations: three frameshift, three missense and two splice-site mutations. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate autosomal dominant Alport syndrome as a disease with a low risk of ocular and hearing anomalies but with a significant risk to develop renal failure although at an older age than the X-linked form. We were unable to demonstrate a genotype-phenotype correlation. Altogether, these data make difficult the differential diagnosis with the benign familial haematuria due to heterozygous mutations of COL4A4 and COL4A3, especially in young patients, and with the X-linked form of Alport syndrome in families where only females are affected. A correct diagnosis and prognosis is based on a comprehensive clinical investigation in as many family members as possible associated with a broadly formal genetic analysis of the pedigree.
24
5
1464
1471
http://ndt.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/gfn681v1
ADAS; ATS; autosomal dominant Alport syndrome; BFH; COL4A4; TBMN
Marcocci E; Uliana V; Bruttini M; Artuso R; Cirillo Silengo M; Zerial M; Bergesio F; Amoroso A; Savoldi S; Pennesi M; Giachino D; Rombolà G; Battista Fogazzi G; Rosatelli C; Dresch Martinhago C; Carmellini M; Mancini R; Di Costanzo G; Longo I; Renieri A; Mari F
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/57860
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