Increased glomerular permeability to proteins is a characteristic feature of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The slit diaphragm is the major restriction site to protein filtration, and the loss of nephrin, a key component of the slit diaphragm, has been demonstrated in both human and experimental DN. Both systemic and glomerular hypertension are believed to be important in the pathogenesis of DN. Human immortalized podocytes were subjected to repeated stretch-relaxation cycles by mechanical deformation with the use of a stress unit (10% elongation, 60 cycles/min) in the presence or absence of candesartan (1 microM), PD-123319 (1 microM), and rosiglitazone (0.1 microM). Nephrin mRNA and protein expression were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence, and the protein expression of AT(1) receptor and angiotensin II secretion were evaluated. Exposure to stretch induced a significant approximately 50% decrease in both nephrin mRNA and protein expression. This effect was mediated by an angiotensin II-AT(1) mechanism. Indeed, podocyte stretching induced both angiotensin II secretion and AT(1) receptor overexpression, podocyte exposure to angiotensin II reduced nephrin protein expression, and both the AT-1 receptor antagonist candesartan and a specific anti-angiotensin II antibody completely abolished stretch-induced nephrin downregulation. Similar to candesartan, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonist, rosiglitazone, also inhibited stretch-induced nephrin downregulation, suggesting interference with stretch-induced activation of the angiotensin II-AT(1) receptor system. Accordingly, rosiglitazone did not alter stretch-induced angiotensin II secretion, but it prevented AT(1) upregulation in response to stretch. These results suggest a role for hemodynamic stress in loss of nephrin expression and allude to a role of PPAR-gamma agonists in the prevention of this loss.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.