Metronomic chemotherapy is the administration of cytotoxic drugs at low doses, on a frequent or continuous schedule, with no extended interruption. This treatment approach can target tumor cells indirectly since it can affect the endothelium of the growing tumor vasculature and stimulates the anticancer immune response. Both the antiangiogenetic and the immunomodulatory roles of metronomic chemotherapy favor a tumor dormancy, a condition that may improve the patient outcome. Prospective clinical trials conducted in several malignancies have shown that metronomic chemotherapy can obtain disease stabilization or responses in tumors that had been made resistant in vivo to conventional chemotherapeutic regimens. Three prospective phase II trials have been conducted in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). In all of them, patients heavily pretreated with conventional chemotherapy and mitotane have been enrolled. One trial tested the activity of the association of gemcitabine and fluoropyrimidines administered on a metronomic schedule. In this trial, 40% of patients attained a disease stabilization or disease response that was long lasting in some of them. In the remaining two trials, metronomic chemotherapy was administered in association with antiangiogenetic drugs, and the results were disappointing since no response or stable disease was obtained. In conclusion, metronomic chemotherapy can delay tumor progression in advanced ACC and deserves to be further tested. The concomitant administration of antiangiogenetic drugs may be detrimental. Several important questions remain to be addressed such as the optimal dose and most effective dosing interval, when to use the metronomic approach in the natural history of the disease, the choice of cytotoxic drugs, and the most efficacious way to integrate metronomic chemotherapy with standard therapy protocols.

Metronomic therapy concepts in the management of adrenocortical carcinoma.

BERRUTI, Alfredo;DAFFARA, Fulvia Claudia;Perotti P;ARDITO, Arianna;SAINI, Andrea;TERZOLO, Massimo
2011

Abstract

Metronomic chemotherapy is the administration of cytotoxic drugs at low doses, on a frequent or continuous schedule, with no extended interruption. This treatment approach can target tumor cells indirectly since it can affect the endothelium of the growing tumor vasculature and stimulates the anticancer immune response. Both the antiangiogenetic and the immunomodulatory roles of metronomic chemotherapy favor a tumor dormancy, a condition that may improve the patient outcome. Prospective clinical trials conducted in several malignancies have shown that metronomic chemotherapy can obtain disease stabilization or responses in tumors that had been made resistant in vivo to conventional chemotherapeutic regimens. Three prospective phase II trials have been conducted in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). In all of them, patients heavily pretreated with conventional chemotherapy and mitotane have been enrolled. One trial tested the activity of the association of gemcitabine and fluoropyrimidines administered on a metronomic schedule. In this trial, 40% of patients attained a disease stabilization or disease response that was long lasting in some of them. In the remaining two trials, metronomic chemotherapy was administered in association with antiangiogenetic drugs, and the results were disappointing since no response or stable disease was obtained. In conclusion, metronomic chemotherapy can delay tumor progression in advanced ACC and deserves to be further tested. The concomitant administration of antiangiogenetic drugs may be detrimental. Several important questions remain to be addressed such as the optimal dose and most effective dosing interval, when to use the metronomic approach in the natural history of the disease, the choice of cytotoxic drugs, and the most efficacious way to integrate metronomic chemotherapy with standard therapy protocols.
HORMONES & CANCER
2
378
384
Berruti A; Sperone P; Bellini E; Daffara F; Perotti P; Ardito A; Saini A; Terzolo M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/90938
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