The paucity of fungal species known to be currently hybridizing has significantly hindered our understanding of the mechanisms driving gene introgression in these eukaryotic microbes. Here, we describe an area of hybridization and gene introgression between the invasive plant pathogen Heterobasidion irregulare (introduced from North America) and the native H. annosum in Italy. A STRUCTURE analysis of AFLP data for 267 individuals identified gene introgression in 8-42% of genotypes in the invasion area, depending on site. Data indicate that introgression is mostly occurring unilaterally from the native to the invasive species, and is responsible for 5-45% of genomes in admixed individuals. Sequence analysis of 11 randomly selected and unlinked loci for 30 individuals identified introgression at every locus, thus confirming interspecific gene flow involves a large number of loci. In 37 cases, we documented movement of entire alleles between the two species, but in 7 cases we also documented the creation of new alleles through intra-locus recombination. Sequence analysis did not identify enrichment of either transcriptionally different non-synonymous alleles or of transcriptionally identical synonymous alleles. These findings may suggest introgression is occurring randomly for extant alleles without an obvious enrichment process driven by selection. However, further studies are needed to ensure selection is not at work elsewhere in the genome.

Amplified fragment length polymorphism and sequence analyses reveal massive gene introgression from the European fungal pathogen Heterobasidion annosum into its introduced congener H. irregulare

GONTHIER, Paolo;
2011

Abstract

The paucity of fungal species known to be currently hybridizing has significantly hindered our understanding of the mechanisms driving gene introgression in these eukaryotic microbes. Here, we describe an area of hybridization and gene introgression between the invasive plant pathogen Heterobasidion irregulare (introduced from North America) and the native H. annosum in Italy. A STRUCTURE analysis of AFLP data for 267 individuals identified gene introgression in 8-42% of genotypes in the invasion area, depending on site. Data indicate that introgression is mostly occurring unilaterally from the native to the invasive species, and is responsible for 5-45% of genomes in admixed individuals. Sequence analysis of 11 randomly selected and unlinked loci for 30 individuals identified introgression at every locus, thus confirming interspecific gene flow involves a large number of loci. In 37 cases, we documented movement of entire alleles between the two species, but in 7 cases we also documented the creation of new alleles through intra-locus recombination. Sequence analysis did not identify enrichment of either transcriptionally different non-synonymous alleles or of transcriptionally identical synonymous alleles. These findings may suggest introgression is occurring randomly for extant alleles without an obvious enrichment process driven by selection. However, further studies are needed to ensure selection is not at work elsewhere in the genome.
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2756
2770
fungi; gene introgression; hybridization; intragenic recombination; selection
GONTHIER P.; GARBELOTTO M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/92177
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