Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) oxidize aldehydes to the corresponding carboxylic acids using either NAD, or NADP as a coenzyme. Aldehydes are highly reactive aliphatic, or aromatic molecules which play an important role in numerous physiological, pathological and pharmacological processes. ALDHs have been discovered in practically all organisms and there are multiple isoforms, with multiple subcellular localizations. More than 160 ALDH cDNAs, or genes have been isolated and sequenced to date from various sources, including bacteria, yeast, fungi, plants and animals. The eukaryote ALDH genes can be subdivided into several families; the human genome contains 19 known ALDH genes, as well as many pseudogenes. Noteworthy is the fact that that elevated activity of various ALDH families, namely ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, ALDH1A7, ALDH2*2, ALDH3A1, ALDH4A1, ALDH5A1, ALDH6, and ALDH9A1, has been observed in normal and cancer stem cells. Consequently, ALDH may be not only be considered a marker of these cells, but also may well play a functional role in terms of self-protection, differentiation and/or expansion of stem cell populations. The ALDH3 family includes enzymes able to oxidize medium-chain aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, such as peroxidic and fatty aldehydes. Moreover, these enzymes also have non-catalytic functions, including antioxidant functions and some structural roles. The gene of the cytosolic form, ALDH3A1, is localized on chromosome 17 in human beings and on the 11th and 10th chromosome, in the mouse and rat, respectively. ALDH3A1 belongs to the phase II group of drug-metabolizing enzymes and is highly expressed in the stomach, lung, keratinocytes and cornea, but poorly, if at all, in normal liver. Cytosolic ALDH3 is induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or chlorinated compounds, such as 2, 3, 7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rat liver cells and increases during carcinogenesis. It has been observed that this increased activity is directly correlated to the degree of deviation in hepatoma and lung cancer cell lines, as is the case in chemically-induced hepatoma in rats. High ALDH3A1 expression and activity have been correlated with cell proliferation, resistance against aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation and resistance against drug toxicity, such as oxazaphosphorines. Indeed, cells with a high ALDH3A1 content are more resistant to the cytostatic and cytotoxic effect of lipidic aldehydes than are those with a low content. A reduction in cell proliferation can be observed when the enzyme is directly inhibited by the administration of synthetic specific inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides or siRNA, or indirectly inhibited by the induction of PPARγ (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor) with polyunsaturated fatty acids, or PPARγ transfection. Conversely, cell proliferation is stimulated by the activation of ALDH3A1, whether by inhibiting PPARγ with a specific antagonist, antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA, or a medical device (i.e. composite polypropylene prosthesis for hernia repair) used to induce cell proliferation. To date, the mechanisms underlying the effects ALDH has on cell proliferation are not yet fully clear. A likely hypothesis is that the regulatory effect is mediated by the catabolism of some endogenous substrates deriving from normal cell metabolism, such as 4-hydroxynonenal, which have the capacity to either stimulate, or inhibit the expression of genes involved in regulating proliferation.

Aldehyde dehydrogenases and cell proliferation

MUZIO, Giuliana;MAGGIORA, Marina;PAIUZZI, ELENA;ORALDI, Manuela;CANUTO, Rosa Angela
2012

Abstract

Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) oxidize aldehydes to the corresponding carboxylic acids using either NAD, or NADP as a coenzyme. Aldehydes are highly reactive aliphatic, or aromatic molecules which play an important role in numerous physiological, pathological and pharmacological processes. ALDHs have been discovered in practically all organisms and there are multiple isoforms, with multiple subcellular localizations. More than 160 ALDH cDNAs, or genes have been isolated and sequenced to date from various sources, including bacteria, yeast, fungi, plants and animals. The eukaryote ALDH genes can be subdivided into several families; the human genome contains 19 known ALDH genes, as well as many pseudogenes. Noteworthy is the fact that that elevated activity of various ALDH families, namely ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, ALDH1A7, ALDH2*2, ALDH3A1, ALDH4A1, ALDH5A1, ALDH6, and ALDH9A1, has been observed in normal and cancer stem cells. Consequently, ALDH may be not only be considered a marker of these cells, but also may well play a functional role in terms of self-protection, differentiation and/or expansion of stem cell populations. The ALDH3 family includes enzymes able to oxidize medium-chain aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, such as peroxidic and fatty aldehydes. Moreover, these enzymes also have non-catalytic functions, including antioxidant functions and some structural roles. The gene of the cytosolic form, ALDH3A1, is localized on chromosome 17 in human beings and on the 11th and 10th chromosome, in the mouse and rat, respectively. ALDH3A1 belongs to the phase II group of drug-metabolizing enzymes and is highly expressed in the stomach, lung, keratinocytes and cornea, but poorly, if at all, in normal liver. Cytosolic ALDH3 is induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or chlorinated compounds, such as 2, 3, 7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rat liver cells and increases during carcinogenesis. It has been observed that this increased activity is directly correlated to the degree of deviation in hepatoma and lung cancer cell lines, as is the case in chemically-induced hepatoma in rats. High ALDH3A1 expression and activity have been correlated with cell proliferation, resistance against aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation and resistance against drug toxicity, such as oxazaphosphorines. Indeed, cells with a high ALDH3A1 content are more resistant to the cytostatic and cytotoxic effect of lipidic aldehydes than are those with a low content. A reduction in cell proliferation can be observed when the enzyme is directly inhibited by the administration of synthetic specific inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides or siRNA, or indirectly inhibited by the induction of PPARγ (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor) with polyunsaturated fatty acids, or PPARγ transfection. Conversely, cell proliferation is stimulated by the activation of ALDH3A1, whether by inhibiting PPARγ with a specific antagonist, antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA, or a medical device (i.e. composite polypropylene prosthesis for hernia repair) used to induce cell proliferation. To date, the mechanisms underlying the effects ALDH has on cell proliferation are not yet fully clear. A likely hypothesis is that the regulatory effect is mediated by the catabolism of some endogenous substrates deriving from normal cell metabolism, such as 4-hydroxynonenal, which have the capacity to either stimulate, or inhibit the expression of genes involved in regulating proliferation.
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http://www.journals.elsevier.com/free-radical-biology-and-medicine/#description
aldehyde dehydrogenase; cancer; Stem cells; PPARs; PUFAs
Muzio G; Maggiora M; Paiuzzi E; Oraldi M; Canuto RA
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/97701
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