Gynecomastia – the enlargement of male breast tissue in men – is a relatively common finding, frequently observed in newborns, adolescents, and old men. Physiological gynecomastia, occurring in almost 25% of cases, is benign and selflimited; on the other hand, several conditions and drugs may induce proliferation of male breast tissue. True gynecomastia is a common feature often related to estrogen excess and/or androgen deficiency as a consequence of different endocrine disorders. Nonendocrine illnesses, including liver failure and chronic kidney disease, are another cause of gynecomastia, which should be considered. Due to the diversity of possibly etiologies, including neoplasm, performing a careful history and physical examination is imperative. Once gynecomastia has been diagnosed, treatment of the underlying cause is warranted. If no underlying cause is discovered, then close observation is appropriate. If gynecomastia is severe, however, medical therapy can be attempted and if ineffective, glandular tissue can be removed surgically.

Gynecomastia

Zavattaro M;Motta G;LANFRANCO, Fabio
2017

Abstract

Gynecomastia – the enlargement of male breast tissue in men – is a relatively common finding, frequently observed in newborns, adolescents, and old men. Physiological gynecomastia, occurring in almost 25% of cases, is benign and selflimited; on the other hand, several conditions and drugs may induce proliferation of male breast tissue. True gynecomastia is a common feature often related to estrogen excess and/or androgen deficiency as a consequence of different endocrine disorders. Nonendocrine illnesses, including liver failure and chronic kidney disease, are another cause of gynecomastia, which should be considered. Due to the diversity of possibly etiologies, including neoplasm, performing a careful history and physical examination is imperative. Once gynecomastia has been diagnosed, treatment of the underlying cause is warranted. If no underlying cause is discovered, then close observation is appropriate. If gynecomastia is severe, however, medical therapy can be attempted and if ineffective, glandular tissue can be removed surgically.
Endocrinology of the Testis and Male Reproduction, Endocrinology 1
Springer International Publishing AG
899
919
978-3-319-44440-6
Gynecomastia, Male breast enlargement, Testosterone, Estradiol, Hyperprolactinemia, Hypogonadism
Zavattaro M, Motta G, Allasia S, Lanfranco F
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1670571
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