Human flavin-containing monooxygenase isoform 3 (hFMO3) is an important hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme, catalyzing the monooxygenation of nucleophilic heteroatom-containing xenobiotics. Based on the structure of bacterial FMO, it is proposed that a conserved asparagine is involved in both NADP(H) and substrate binding. In order to explore the role of this amino acid in hFMO3, two mutants were constructed. In the case of N61Q, increasing the steric hindrance above the flavin N5-C4a causes poor NADP(H) binding, destabilizing the catalytic FAD intermediate, whereas the introduction of a negatively charged residue, N61D, interferes mainly with catalytic intermediate formation and its stability. To better understand the substrate-enzyme interaction, in vitro as well as in silico experiments were carried out with methimazole as substrate. Methimazole is a high-affinity substrate of hFMO3 and can competitively suppress the metabolism of other compounds. Our results demonstrate that methimazole Pi-stacks above the isoalloxazine ring of FAD in hFMO3, in a similar way to indole binding to the bacterial FMO. However, for hFMO3 indole is found to act as a non-substrate competitive inhibitor. Finally, understanding the binding mode of methimazole and indole could be advantageous for development of hFMO3 inhibitors, currently investigated as a possible treatment strategy for atherosclerosis.

Binding of methimazole and NADP(H) to human FMO3: In vitro and in silico studies

Gao, Chongliang;Catucci, Gianluca;Gilardi, Gianfranco;Sadeghi, Sheila J.
Last
2018

Abstract

Human flavin-containing monooxygenase isoform 3 (hFMO3) is an important hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme, catalyzing the monooxygenation of nucleophilic heteroatom-containing xenobiotics. Based on the structure of bacterial FMO, it is proposed that a conserved asparagine is involved in both NADP(H) and substrate binding. In order to explore the role of this amino acid in hFMO3, two mutants were constructed. In the case of N61Q, increasing the steric hindrance above the flavin N5-C4a causes poor NADP(H) binding, destabilizing the catalytic FAD intermediate, whereas the introduction of a negatively charged residue, N61D, interferes mainly with catalytic intermediate formation and its stability. To better understand the substrate-enzyme interaction, in vitro as well as in silico experiments were carried out with methimazole as substrate. Methimazole is a high-affinity substrate of hFMO3 and can competitively suppress the metabolism of other compounds. Our results demonstrate that methimazole Pi-stacks above the isoalloxazine ring of FAD in hFMO3, in a similar way to indole binding to the bacterial FMO. However, for hFMO3 indole is found to act as a non-substrate competitive inhibitor. Finally, understanding the binding mode of methimazole and indole could be advantageous for development of hFMO3 inhibitors, currently investigated as a possible treatment strategy for atherosclerosis.
118
Pt A
460
468
www.elsevier.com/locate/ijbiomac
Active site mutant; Calorimetry; Human flavin-containing monooxygenase isoform 3; Methimazole; Molecular docking; Structural Biology; Biochemistry; Molecular Biology
Gao, Chongliang; Catucci, Gianluca; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Sadeghi, Sheila J.*
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1676512
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