This article presents an Italian version of the Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children (GIQC) (Cohen-Kettenis et al., 2006; Johnson et al., 2004), a parent-report questionnaire covering a range of gender characteristics of children. We developed the GIQC-Italian version with the translation/back translation method and administered it, with a sociodemographic data sheet, to the parents of 1148 children aged 3-12 years (non-clinical sample). After obtaining descriptive data for each item, in line with Johnson et al. (2004), we examined dimensionality through exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Considering the results and that our sample was entirely non-clinical, we developed a new scoring procedure. The EFA on the new scores generated three scales: (1) a Female-Typical Behavior Scale, (2) a Male-Typical Behavior Scale, and (3) a Cross-Gender Scale. Additional EFA and confirmatory factor analyses (WLSMV estimator by using a 80/20 random-split-sample analytical approach) confirmed the three-factor solution as the best fitting dimensional structure for the revised GIQC. The Cronbach's α of the scales showed a satisfactory internal consistency. The frequency distribution of the scales scores showed it is possible to find atypical gender behavior and preferences in non-clinical samples. Independent samples t test confirmed a significant difference between boys' and girls' scores. Older children reported scores indicating less gender non-conforming characteristics than younger, except for the Female-Typical Behavior Scale in the girls' subsample. Results are discussed in the light of the existing literature about gender development. Our findings suggest that the GIQC-Italian version could be a useful tool for studying gender development in the Italian context.

A Parent-Report Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children: Psychometric Properties of an Italian Version

Caldarera, Angela M;Marengo, Davide;Gerino, Eva;Brustia, Piera;Rollè, Luca;
2019-01-01

Abstract

This article presents an Italian version of the Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children (GIQC) (Cohen-Kettenis et al., 2006; Johnson et al., 2004), a parent-report questionnaire covering a range of gender characteristics of children. We developed the GIQC-Italian version with the translation/back translation method and administered it, with a sociodemographic data sheet, to the parents of 1148 children aged 3-12 years (non-clinical sample). After obtaining descriptive data for each item, in line with Johnson et al. (2004), we examined dimensionality through exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Considering the results and that our sample was entirely non-clinical, we developed a new scoring procedure. The EFA on the new scores generated three scales: (1) a Female-Typical Behavior Scale, (2) a Male-Typical Behavior Scale, and (3) a Cross-Gender Scale. Additional EFA and confirmatory factor analyses (WLSMV estimator by using a 80/20 random-split-sample analytical approach) confirmed the three-factor solution as the best fitting dimensional structure for the revised GIQC. The Cronbach's α of the scales showed a satisfactory internal consistency. The frequency distribution of the scales scores showed it is possible to find atypical gender behavior and preferences in non-clinical samples. Independent samples t test confirmed a significant difference between boys' and girls' scores. Older children reported scores indicating less gender non-conforming characteristics than younger, except for the Female-Typical Behavior Scale in the girls' subsample. Results are discussed in the light of the existing literature about gender development. Our findings suggest that the GIQC-Italian version could be a useful tool for studying gender development in the Italian context.
2019
48
5
1603
1615
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10508-018-1372-7
Gender behavior; Gender identity; Gender role; Italian children
Caldarera, Angela M; Marengo, Davide; Gerino, Eva; Brustia, Piera; Rollè, Luca; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
10.1007_s10508-018-1372-7.pdf

Accesso aperto

Descrizione: Articolo principale
Tipo di file: PDF EDITORIALE
Dimensione 730.16 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
730.16 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1694198
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 4
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 3
social impact