A novel innate immune strategy, involving specific cholesterol oxidation products as effectors, has begun to reveal connections between cholesterol metabolism and immune response against viral infections. Indeed, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), physiologically produced by enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol, act as inhibitors of a wide spectrum of enveloped and non-enveloped human viruses. However, the mechanisms underlying their protective effects against non-enveloped viruses are almost completely unexplored. To get insight into this field, we investigated the antiviral activity of 25HC and 27HC against a non-enveloped virus causing acute gastroenteritis in children, the human rotavirus (HRV). We found that 25HC and 27HC block the infectivity of several HRV strains at 50% inhibitory concentrations in the low micromolar range in the absence of cell toxicity. Both molecules affect the final step of virus penetration into cells by preventing the association of two cellular proteins: the oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and the vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein-A (VAP-A). By altering the activity of these cellular mediators, 25HC and 27HC disturb the recycling of cholesterol between the endoplasmic reticulum and the late endosomes which are exploited by HRV to penetrate into the cell. The substantial accumulation of cholesterol in the late endosomal compartment results in sequestering viral particles inside these vesicles thereby preventing cytoplasmic virus replication. These findings suggest that cholesterol oxidation products of enzymatic origin might be primary effectors of host restriction strategies to counteract HRV infection and point to redox active lipids involvement in viral infections as a research area of focus to better focus in order to identify novel antiviral agents targets.

25-Hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol inhibit human rotavirus infection by sequestering viral particles into late endosomes

Civra, Andrea
First
;
Francese, Rachele;Gamba, Paola;Testa, Gabriella;Cagno, Valeria;Poli, Giuseppe;Lembo, David
Last
2018

Abstract

A novel innate immune strategy, involving specific cholesterol oxidation products as effectors, has begun to reveal connections between cholesterol metabolism and immune response against viral infections. Indeed, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), physiologically produced by enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol, act as inhibitors of a wide spectrum of enveloped and non-enveloped human viruses. However, the mechanisms underlying their protective effects against non-enveloped viruses are almost completely unexplored. To get insight into this field, we investigated the antiviral activity of 25HC and 27HC against a non-enveloped virus causing acute gastroenteritis in children, the human rotavirus (HRV). We found that 25HC and 27HC block the infectivity of several HRV strains at 50% inhibitory concentrations in the low micromolar range in the absence of cell toxicity. Both molecules affect the final step of virus penetration into cells by preventing the association of two cellular proteins: the oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and the vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein-A (VAP-A). By altering the activity of these cellular mediators, 25HC and 27HC disturb the recycling of cholesterol between the endoplasmic reticulum and the late endosomes which are exploited by HRV to penetrate into the cell. The substantial accumulation of cholesterol in the late endosomal compartment results in sequestering viral particles inside these vesicles thereby preventing cytoplasmic virus replication. These findings suggest that cholesterol oxidation products of enzymatic origin might be primary effectors of host restriction strategies to counteract HRV infection and point to redox active lipids involvement in viral infections as a research area of focus to better focus in order to identify novel antiviral agents targets.
19
318
330
http://www.journals.elsevier.com/redox-biology
Animals; Caco-2 Cells; Cell Line; Cercopithecus aethiops; Endosomes; Humans; Hydroxycholesterols; Immunity, Innate; Rotavirus; Rotavirus Infections; Virion; Virus Internalization; Biochemistry; Organic Chemistry
Civra, Andrea; Francese, Rachele; Gamba, Paola; Testa, Gabriella; Cagno, Valeria; Poli, Giuseppe*; Lembo, David
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1701183
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