This study aims to determine whether a balance between concerted and non-concerted pathways exists, and in particular to ascertain the possible role of diradical/zwitterion or peroxirane intermediates. Three non-concerted pathways, via 1) diradical or 2) peroxirane intermediates, and 3) by means of hydrogen-abstraction/radical recoupling, plus one concerted pathway (4), are explored. The intermediates and transition structures (TS) are optimized at the DFT(MPW1K), DFT(B3LYP) and CASSCF levels of theory. The latter optimizations are followed by multireference perturbative CASPT2 energy calculations. 1) The polar diradical forms from the separate reactants by surmounting a barrier (ΔE‡MPW1K = 12, ΔE‡B3LYP = 14, and ΔE‡CASPT2 = 16 kcal mol-1 and can back-dissociate through the same TS, with barriers of 11 (MPW1K) and 8 kcal mol-1 (B3LYP and CASPT2). The diradical to hydroperoxide transformation is easy at all levels (ΔE‡MPW1K < 4, ΔE‡B3LYP = 1 and ΔE‡CASPT2 = 1 kcal mol-1). 2) Peroxirane is attainable only by passing through the diradical intermediate, and not directly, due to the nature of the critical points involved. It is located higher in energy than the diradical by 12 kcal mol-1, at all theory levels. The energy barrier for the diradical to cis-peroxirane transformation (ΔE‡ = 14-16 kcal mol-1) is much higher than that for the diradical transformation to the hydroperoxide. In addition, peroxirane can very easily back-transform to the diradical (ΔE‡ < 3 kcal mol-1). Not only the energetics, but also the qualitative features of the energy hypersurface, prevent a pathway connecting the peroxirane to the hydroperoxide at all levels of theory. 3) The last two-step pathway (hydrogen-abstraction by 1O2, followed by HOO-allyl radical coupling) is not competitive with the diradical mechanism. 4) A concerted pathway is carefully investigated, and deemed an artifact of restricted DFT calculations. Finally, the possible ene/[Π2 + Π2] competition is discussed.

The 1Dg dioxygen ene reaction with propene. Density Functional and Multireference Perturbation Theory Mechanistic Study

MARANZANA, Andrea;GHIGO, Giovanni;TONACHINI, Glauco
2003

Abstract

This study aims to determine whether a balance between concerted and non-concerted pathways exists, and in particular to ascertain the possible role of diradical/zwitterion or peroxirane intermediates. Three non-concerted pathways, via 1) diradical or 2) peroxirane intermediates, and 3) by means of hydrogen-abstraction/radical recoupling, plus one concerted pathway (4), are explored. The intermediates and transition structures (TS) are optimized at the DFT(MPW1K), DFT(B3LYP) and CASSCF levels of theory. The latter optimizations are followed by multireference perturbative CASPT2 energy calculations. 1) The polar diradical forms from the separate reactants by surmounting a barrier (ΔE‡MPW1K = 12, ΔE‡B3LYP = 14, and ΔE‡CASPT2 = 16 kcal mol-1 and can back-dissociate through the same TS, with barriers of 11 (MPW1K) and 8 kcal mol-1 (B3LYP and CASPT2). The diradical to hydroperoxide transformation is easy at all levels (ΔE‡MPW1K < 4, ΔE‡B3LYP = 1 and ΔE‡CASPT2 = 1 kcal mol-1). 2) Peroxirane is attainable only by passing through the diradical intermediate, and not directly, due to the nature of the critical points involved. It is located higher in energy than the diradical by 12 kcal mol-1, at all theory levels. The energy barrier for the diradical to cis-peroxirane transformation (ΔE‡ = 14-16 kcal mol-1) is much higher than that for the diradical transformation to the hydroperoxide. In addition, peroxirane can very easily back-transform to the diradical (ΔE‡ < 3 kcal mol-1). Not only the energetics, but also the qualitative features of the energy hypersurface, prevent a pathway connecting the peroxirane to the hydroperoxide at all levels of theory. 3) The last two-step pathway (hydrogen-abstraction by 1O2, followed by HOO-allyl radical coupling) is not competitive with the diradical mechanism. 4) A concerted pathway is carefully investigated, and deemed an artifact of restricted DFT calculations. Finally, the possible ene/[Π2 + Π2] competition is discussed.
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A. MARANZANA; G. GHIGO; G. TONACHINI
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1721
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