Objective: Recent evidence suggests the substantial pathogenic role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway in the development of low-grade chronic inflammatory response, known as “metaflammation,” which contributes to obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effects of the JAK1/2 inhibitor baricitinib, recently approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, in a murine high-fat-high sugar diet model. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a control normal diet (ND) or a high-fat-high sugar diet (HD) for 22 weeks. A sub-group of HD fed mice was treated with baricitinib (10 mg/kg die, p.o.) for the last 16 weeks (HD + Bar). Results: HD feeding resulted in obesity, insulin-resistance, hypercholesterolemia and alterations in gut microbial composition. The metabolic abnormalities were dramatically reduced by chronic baricitinib administration. Treatment of HD mice with baricitinib did not change the diet-induced alterations in the gut, but restored insulin signaling in the liver and skeletal muscle, resulting in improvements of diet-induced myosteatosis, mesangial expansion and associated proteinuria. The skeletal muscle and renal protection were due to inhibition of the local JAK2-STAT2 pathway by baricitinib. We also demonstrated that restored tissue levels of JAK2-STAT2 activity were associated with a significant reduction in cytokine levels in the blood. Conclusions: In summary, our data suggest that the JAK2-STAT2 pathway may represent a novel candidate for the treatment of diet-related metabolic derangements, with the potential for EMA- and FDA-approved JAK inhibitors to be repurposed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and/or its complications.

Baricitinib counteracts metaflammation, thus protecting against diet-induced metabolic abnormalities in mice

Collotta D.;Mastrocola R.;Chiazza F.;Cento A. S.;Verta R.;Aragno M.;Collino M.
2020

Abstract

Objective: Recent evidence suggests the substantial pathogenic role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway in the development of low-grade chronic inflammatory response, known as “metaflammation,” which contributes to obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effects of the JAK1/2 inhibitor baricitinib, recently approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, in a murine high-fat-high sugar diet model. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a control normal diet (ND) or a high-fat-high sugar diet (HD) for 22 weeks. A sub-group of HD fed mice was treated with baricitinib (10 mg/kg die, p.o.) for the last 16 weeks (HD + Bar). Results: HD feeding resulted in obesity, insulin-resistance, hypercholesterolemia and alterations in gut microbial composition. The metabolic abnormalities were dramatically reduced by chronic baricitinib administration. Treatment of HD mice with baricitinib did not change the diet-induced alterations in the gut, but restored insulin signaling in the liver and skeletal muscle, resulting in improvements of diet-induced myosteatosis, mesangial expansion and associated proteinuria. The skeletal muscle and renal protection were due to inhibition of the local JAK2-STAT2 pathway by baricitinib. We also demonstrated that restored tissue levels of JAK2-STAT2 activity were associated with a significant reduction in cytokine levels in the blood. Conclusions: In summary, our data suggest that the JAK2-STAT2 pathway may represent a novel candidate for the treatment of diet-related metabolic derangements, with the potential for EMA- and FDA-approved JAK inhibitors to be repurposed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and/or its complications.
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Baricitinib; High-fat-high sugar diet; Insulin resistance; JAK2-STAT2 pathway; Metaflammation
Collotta D.; Hull W.; Mastrocola R.; Chiazza F.; Cento A.S.; Murphy C.; Verta R.; Alves G.F.; Gaudioso G.; Fava F.; Yaqoob M.; Aragno M.; Tuohy K.; Thiemermann C.; Collino M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1758975
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