The long-term established symbiosis between gut microbiota and humans is based upon a dynamic equilibrium that, if unbalanced, could lead to the development of diseases. Despite the huge amount of data concerning the microbiota-gut-brain-axis, little information is available on what happens at the molecular level in bacteria, when exposed to human signals. In the present study, the physiological effects exerted by norepinephrine (NE), a human hormone present in significant amounts in the host gut, were analyzed using the commensal/probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium NCIMB10415 as a target. The aim was to compare the protein profiles of treated and untreated bacteria and relating these proteome patterns to some phenotypic modifications important for bacteria-host interaction. Actually, to date, only pathogens have been considered. Combining a gel-free/label-free proteomic analysis with the evaluation of bile salts resistance, biofilm formation and autoaggregation ability (as well as with the bacterial growth kinetics), allowed to detect changes induced by NE treatment on all the tested probiotic properties. Furthermore, exposure to the bioactive molecule increased the abundance of proteins related to stress response and to host-microbe interaction, such as moonlight proteins involved in adhesion and immune stimulation. The results of this investigation demonstrated that, not only pathogens, but also commensal gut bacteria are affected by host-derived hormones, underlining the importance of a correct cross-signalling in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Significance: The crucial role played by the human gut microbiota in ensuring host homeostasis and health is definitively ascertained as suggested by the holobiome concept. The present research was intended to shed light on the endocrinological perturbations possibly affecting microbiota. The microbial model used in this study belongs to Enterococcus faecium species, whose controversial role as gut commensal and opportunistic pathogen in the gut ecosystem is well recognized. The results obtained in the present investigation clearly demonstrate that E. faecium NCIMB10415 can sense and respond to norepinephrine, a human hormone abundant at the gut level, by changing protein profiles and physiology, inducing changes that could favor survival and colonization of the host tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first proteomic report concerning the impact of a human hormone on a commensal/probiotic bacterium, since previous research has focused on exploring the effects of neuroendocrine molecules on growth and virulence of pathogenic species.

Enterococcus faecium NCIMB10415 responds to norepinephrine by altering protein profiles and phenotypic characters

Scardaci R.;Varese F.;Mazzoli R.;Pessione E.
2021

Abstract

The long-term established symbiosis between gut microbiota and humans is based upon a dynamic equilibrium that, if unbalanced, could lead to the development of diseases. Despite the huge amount of data concerning the microbiota-gut-brain-axis, little information is available on what happens at the molecular level in bacteria, when exposed to human signals. In the present study, the physiological effects exerted by norepinephrine (NE), a human hormone present in significant amounts in the host gut, were analyzed using the commensal/probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium NCIMB10415 as a target. The aim was to compare the protein profiles of treated and untreated bacteria and relating these proteome patterns to some phenotypic modifications important for bacteria-host interaction. Actually, to date, only pathogens have been considered. Combining a gel-free/label-free proteomic analysis with the evaluation of bile salts resistance, biofilm formation and autoaggregation ability (as well as with the bacterial growth kinetics), allowed to detect changes induced by NE treatment on all the tested probiotic properties. Furthermore, exposure to the bioactive molecule increased the abundance of proteins related to stress response and to host-microbe interaction, such as moonlight proteins involved in adhesion and immune stimulation. The results of this investigation demonstrated that, not only pathogens, but also commensal gut bacteria are affected by host-derived hormones, underlining the importance of a correct cross-signalling in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Significance: The crucial role played by the human gut microbiota in ensuring host homeostasis and health is definitively ascertained as suggested by the holobiome concept. The present research was intended to shed light on the endocrinological perturbations possibly affecting microbiota. The microbial model used in this study belongs to Enterococcus faecium species, whose controversial role as gut commensal and opportunistic pathogen in the gut ecosystem is well recognized. The results obtained in the present investigation clearly demonstrate that E. faecium NCIMB10415 can sense and respond to norepinephrine, a human hormone abundant at the gut level, by changing protein profiles and physiology, inducing changes that could favor survival and colonization of the host tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first proteomic report concerning the impact of a human hormone on a commensal/probiotic bacterium, since previous research has focused on exploring the effects of neuroendocrine molecules on growth and virulence of pathogenic species.
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art N° 104003
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10
Enterococcus faecium NCIMB10415; Gel-free proteomics; Microbiota-gut-brain-axis; Norepinephrine
Scardaci R.; Varese F.; Manfredi M.; Marengo E.; Mazzoli R.; Pessione E.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1759319
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