Background: Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) during the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) pandemic should be reserved to a limited number of clinical indications. The yield of BAL for the diagnosis of suspected or confirmed pulmonary SARS-CoV-2 infection is still unknown. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic ratio of BAL in detecting SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary infection in patients undergoing bronchoscopy for different indications as well as describe the clinical, radiological, and endoscopic characteristics of patients with SARS-CoV-2 on BAL. Method: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study including all patients who underwent bronchoscopy for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 on BAL. Clinical, computed tomography (CT), endoscopic, and microbiologic data were gathered from March 16th to May 27th, 2020. Results: 131 patients were included. Bronchoscopy was performed for suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection (65.5%), alternative diagnosis (12.9%), suspected superinfections (19.8%), and lung atelectasis (1.5%). SARS-CoV-2 was isolated on BAL 43 times (32.8%) and the highest isolation rate was in patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection (74.4%); 76% of positive patients had a double-negative nasopharyngeal swab. Peripheral, posterior and multilobar CT opacities were more frequent in SARS-CoV-2 patients, and the number of CT findings was higher in positive patients, particularly those with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. We recorded a progressive reduction of SARS-CoV-2 isolation during the observation period. Conclusions: In our centers, the rate of detection of SARS-CoV-2 on BAL in patients with suspected infection was 37.2%. The agreement of BAL with nasopharyngeal swabs was high; CT alterations could predict the pretest probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but suspicion of viral infection should be always considered.

SARS-CoV-2 Detection on Bronchoalveolar Lavage: An Italian Multicenter experience

Patrucco F.;Albera C.;Bellocchia M.;Castello L. M.;Solidoro P.
2021

Abstract

Background: Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) during the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) pandemic should be reserved to a limited number of clinical indications. The yield of BAL for the diagnosis of suspected or confirmed pulmonary SARS-CoV-2 infection is still unknown. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic ratio of BAL in detecting SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary infection in patients undergoing bronchoscopy for different indications as well as describe the clinical, radiological, and endoscopic characteristics of patients with SARS-CoV-2 on BAL. Method: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study including all patients who underwent bronchoscopy for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 on BAL. Clinical, computed tomography (CT), endoscopic, and microbiologic data were gathered from March 16th to May 27th, 2020. Results: 131 patients were included. Bronchoscopy was performed for suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection (65.5%), alternative diagnosis (12.9%), suspected superinfections (19.8%), and lung atelectasis (1.5%). SARS-CoV-2 was isolated on BAL 43 times (32.8%) and the highest isolation rate was in patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection (74.4%); 76% of positive patients had a double-negative nasopharyngeal swab. Peripheral, posterior and multilobar CT opacities were more frequent in SARS-CoV-2 patients, and the number of CT findings was higher in positive patients, particularly those with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. We recorded a progressive reduction of SARS-CoV-2 isolation during the observation period. Conclusions: In our centers, the rate of detection of SARS-CoV-2 on BAL in patients with suspected infection was 37.2%. The agreement of BAL with nasopharyngeal swabs was high; CT alterations could predict the pretest probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but suspicion of viral infection should be always considered.
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Bronchoalveolar lavage; Bronchoscopy; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2
Patrucco F.; Albera C.; Bellocchia M.; Foci V.; Gavelli F.; Castello L.M.; Bellan M.; Sainaghi P.P.; Airoldi C.; Balbo P.E.; Solidoro P.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1761571
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