Fabry disease, a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by deficiency of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. The incidence, ranging from one over 40 000 to one over 11 7000 worldwide is probably underestimated due to its unspecific pattern of presentation. The symptoms, including neurological, gastrointestinal, renal, ophthalmological and dermatologic manifestations, start in childhood and adolescence, cause a significant morbidity and are likely to affect the patient's quality of life. Furthermore, Anderson-Fabry disease always progress leading to a multiorgan dysfunction and life-threatening complications with end-stage renal disease, cardiomyopathy and high incidence of stroke. The estimated life in untreated patients is reduced by 15-20 years respectively in men and women. The enzyme replacement therapy, available in Europe from 2001, results in a reduction of major organs failure, morbidity and mortality. We present the case of an 8-year-old male admitted to our Division for overweight with a previous history of acroparesthesias, severe acute pain in hands and feet, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, constipation, bitemporal headache, dyshidrosis, recurrent fever, exercise intolerance and reduced quality of life. The physical examination was within normal limits. The α-galactosidase A activity was deficient in plasma and normal in peripheral leukocytes; the GLA gene showed a nucleotide substitution c.352C>T (p.Arg 118 Cys) in the eson 2 with a residual enzyme activity of the 29% suggesting the diagnosis of Fabry disease. Blood and urine chemistry, the slit-lamp examination and MRI of kidneys, heart and brain excluded any major organ involvement. The enzyme replacement therapy was then started almost three months ago using agasidase alfa at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg infused intravenously every two weeks but, unfortunately, no relief in the symptoms have been reported so far without any severe adverse reactions. This case report aims to point out the importance of an early diagnosis in order to prevent the progression of the disease, the multiorgan failure and to improve the long-term prognosis.
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