Vaginal infections such as bacterial vaginosis (BV), chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, candidiasis, and trichomoniasis affect millions of women each year. They are caused by an overgrowth of microorganisms, generally sexually transmitted, which in turn can be favored by alterations in the vaginal flora. Conventional treatments of these infections consist in systemic or local antimicrobial therapies. However, in the attempt to reduce adverse effects and to contrast microbial resistance and infection recurrences, many efforts have been devoted to the development of vaginal systems for the local delivery of antimicrobials. Several topical dosage forms such as aerosols, lotions, suppositories, tablets, gels, and creams have been proposed, although they are sometimes ineffective due to their poor penetration and rapid removal from the vaginal canal. For these reasons, the development of innovative drug delivery systems, able to remain in situ and release active agents for a prolonged period, is becoming more and more important. Among all, nanosystems such as liposomes, nanoparticles (NPs), and micelles with tunable surface properties, but also thermogelling nanocomposites, could be exploited to improve local drug delivery, biodistribution, retention, and uptake in vulvovaginal tissues. The aim of this review is to provide a survey of the variety of nanoplatforms developed for the vaginal delivery of antimicrobial agents. A concise summary of the most common vaginal infections and of the conventional therapies is also provided.

Recent advances in nanosystems and strategies for vaginal delivery of antimicrobials

Chindamo G.
First
;
Sapino S.
;
Peira E.;Chirio D.;Gallarate M.
Last
2021

Abstract

Vaginal infections such as bacterial vaginosis (BV), chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, candidiasis, and trichomoniasis affect millions of women each year. They are caused by an overgrowth of microorganisms, generally sexually transmitted, which in turn can be favored by alterations in the vaginal flora. Conventional treatments of these infections consist in systemic or local antimicrobial therapies. However, in the attempt to reduce adverse effects and to contrast microbial resistance and infection recurrences, many efforts have been devoted to the development of vaginal systems for the local delivery of antimicrobials. Several topical dosage forms such as aerosols, lotions, suppositories, tablets, gels, and creams have been proposed, although they are sometimes ineffective due to their poor penetration and rapid removal from the vaginal canal. For these reasons, the development of innovative drug delivery systems, able to remain in situ and release active agents for a prolonged period, is becoming more and more important. Among all, nanosystems such as liposomes, nanoparticles (NPs), and micelles with tunable surface properties, but also thermogelling nanocomposites, could be exploited to improve local drug delivery, biodistribution, retention, and uptake in vulvovaginal tissues. The aim of this review is to provide a survey of the variety of nanoplatforms developed for the vaginal delivery of antimicrobial agents. A concise summary of the most common vaginal infections and of the conventional therapies is also provided.
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Antimicrobials; Drug delivery systems; Local therapies; Nanocarriers; Vaginal infections
Chindamo G.; Sapino S.; Peira E.; Chirio D.; Gallarate M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1775029
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