Background: Lung hydatidosis is a zoonosis related to infection by the Echinococcus tapeworm species. Lung involvement in this condition is second only to the liver echinococcosis. Diagnosis ordinarily results from an accidental finding in a direct chest radiograph evaluation because of the delayed growth of the cysts. Moreover, a consistent treatment regimen or approach may not be feasible because of the variability of pulmonary echinococcosis. In this review, we expect to sum up the main features of lung hydatidosis with a perspective on medical and surgical treatment.Methods: Cochrane Library and PubMed were the databases used to perform a narrative literature review. Search terms included "pulmonary echinococcosis" and "lung hydatidosis." The MeSH terms were "lung" [All Fields] AND {"echinococcosis" [MeSH Terms] OR ("hydatidosis" [All Fields] OR "pulmonary" [All Fields] AND "echinococcosis" [All Fields] OR "hydatidosis." A search period from September 1980 to May 2020 was chosen to compare studies from different decades, given the changes in pulmonary echinococcosis management.Results: A uniform treatment regimen or approach may not be feasible because of the variability of pulmonary echinococcosis. No clinical trials have analyzed and compared all the diverse treatment approaches. Cyst size, characteristics, position in the lung and clinical presentation, and the availability of medical/surgical expertise and equipment are the mainstays of echinococcosis management. When feasible, surgery is as yet the principal therapeutic choice to eliminate the cysts; anti-parasitic drugs may minimize complications during high-risk surgery or be used as definitive therapy in some instances with contraindications to surgery.Conclusions: Lung hydatidosis management must become less heterogeneous. We support treatment directed to the subject established on the clinical scenario, host factors, and surgical risk. Strict cooperation in this process between infectious disease specialists and surgeons may optimize best practices to help create shared practical guidelines to simplify clinicians' decision-making. Furthermore, we need a consensus for lung hydatidosis treatment and inserting this disease to global surgery agenda will have a positive impact on acquiring high-quality data that enables us to create an evidence-based guideline for this disease.

Pulmonary Echinococcosis or Lung Hydatidosis: A Narrative Review

Lupia, Tommaso;Corcione, Silvia;Guerrera, Francesco;Costardi, Lorena;Ruffini, Enrico;Mornese Pinna, Simone;De Rosa, Francesco G
2021

Abstract

Background: Lung hydatidosis is a zoonosis related to infection by the Echinococcus tapeworm species. Lung involvement in this condition is second only to the liver echinococcosis. Diagnosis ordinarily results from an accidental finding in a direct chest radiograph evaluation because of the delayed growth of the cysts. Moreover, a consistent treatment regimen or approach may not be feasible because of the variability of pulmonary echinococcosis. In this review, we expect to sum up the main features of lung hydatidosis with a perspective on medical and surgical treatment.Methods: Cochrane Library and PubMed were the databases used to perform a narrative literature review. Search terms included "pulmonary echinococcosis" and "lung hydatidosis." The MeSH terms were "lung" [All Fields] AND {"echinococcosis" [MeSH Terms] OR ("hydatidosis" [All Fields] OR "pulmonary" [All Fields] AND "echinococcosis" [All Fields] OR "hydatidosis." A search period from September 1980 to May 2020 was chosen to compare studies from different decades, given the changes in pulmonary echinococcosis management.Results: A uniform treatment regimen or approach may not be feasible because of the variability of pulmonary echinococcosis. No clinical trials have analyzed and compared all the diverse treatment approaches. Cyst size, characteristics, position in the lung and clinical presentation, and the availability of medical/surgical expertise and equipment are the mainstays of echinococcosis management. When feasible, surgery is as yet the principal therapeutic choice to eliminate the cysts; anti-parasitic drugs may minimize complications during high-risk surgery or be used as definitive therapy in some instances with contraindications to surgery.Conclusions: Lung hydatidosis management must become less heterogeneous. We support treatment directed to the subject established on the clinical scenario, host factors, and surgical risk. Strict cooperation in this process between infectious disease specialists and surgeons may optimize best practices to help create shared practical guidelines to simplify clinicians' decision-making. Furthermore, we need a consensus for lung hydatidosis treatment and inserting this disease to global surgery agenda will have a positive impact on acquiring high-quality data that enables us to create an evidence-based guideline for this disease.
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cyst; echinococcus; hydatidosis; pneumonia; surgery
Lupia, Tommaso; Corcione, Silvia; Guerrera, Francesco; Costardi, Lorena; Ruffini, Enrico; Mornese Pinna, Simone; De Rosa, Francesco G
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1785586
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