Cerebral Cavernous Malformation (CCM) is a cerebrovascular disease of genetic origin affecting 0.5% of the population and characterized by abnormally enlarged and leaky capillaries that predispose to seizures, neurological deficits, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). CCM occurs sporadically or is inherited as dominant condition with incomplete penetrance and highly variable expressivity. Three disease genes have been identified: KRIT1 (CCM1), CCM2 and CCM3. Previous results demonstrated that loss-of-function mutations of CCM genes cause pleiotropic effects, including defective autophagy, altered reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, and enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress and inflammatory events, suggesting a novel unifying pathogenetic mechanism, and raising the possibility that CCM disease onset and severity are influenced by the presence of susceptibility and modifier genes. Consistently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in large and homogeneous cohorts of patients sharing the familial form of CCM disease and identical mutations in CCM genes have led to the discovery of distinct genetic modifiers of major disease severity phenotypes, such as development of numerous and large CCM lesions, and susceptibility to ICH. This review deals with the identification of genetic modifiers with a significant impact on inter-individual variability in CCM disease onset and severity, including highly polymorphic genes involved in oxidative stress, inflammatory, and immune responses, such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), and Toll-like receptors (TLR), pointing to their emerging prognostic value, and opening up new perspectives for risk stratification and personalized medicine strategies.

Polymorphisms in genes related to oxidative stress and inflammation: Emerging links with the pathogenesis and severity of Cerebral Cavernous Malformation disease

Perrelli, Andrea
;
Retta, Saverio Francesco
2021

Abstract

Cerebral Cavernous Malformation (CCM) is a cerebrovascular disease of genetic origin affecting 0.5% of the population and characterized by abnormally enlarged and leaky capillaries that predispose to seizures, neurological deficits, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). CCM occurs sporadically or is inherited as dominant condition with incomplete penetrance and highly variable expressivity. Three disease genes have been identified: KRIT1 (CCM1), CCM2 and CCM3. Previous results demonstrated that loss-of-function mutations of CCM genes cause pleiotropic effects, including defective autophagy, altered reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, and enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress and inflammatory events, suggesting a novel unifying pathogenetic mechanism, and raising the possibility that CCM disease onset and severity are influenced by the presence of susceptibility and modifier genes. Consistently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in large and homogeneous cohorts of patients sharing the familial form of CCM disease and identical mutations in CCM genes have led to the discovery of distinct genetic modifiers of major disease severity phenotypes, such as development of numerous and large CCM lesions, and susceptibility to ICH. This review deals with the identification of genetic modifiers with a significant impact on inter-individual variability in CCM disease onset and severity, including highly polymorphic genes involved in oxidative stress, inflammatory, and immune responses, such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), and Toll-like receptors (TLR), pointing to their emerging prognostic value, and opening up new perspectives for risk stratification and personalized medicine strategies.
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https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34175437/
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891584921003865?via=ihub
Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM); Cerebrovascular diseases; Genetic modifiers; Genetic susceptibility factors; Genome-wide association studies (GWAS); Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
Perrelli, Andrea; Retta, Saverio Francesco
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1792608
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