The intrinsic chemoresistance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents the main obstacle in treating this aggressive malignancy. It has been observed that high antioxidant levels and upregulated Nrf2 and the YAP protein expression can be involved in PDAC chemoresistance. The mechanisms of Nrf2 and YAP increase need to be clarified. We chose a panel of PDAC cell lines with diverse sensitivity to cisplatin and gemcitabine. In PANC-1 chemoresistant cells, we found a low level of oxidative stress and high levels of Nrf2 and YAP protein expressions and their respective targets. On the contrary, in CFPAC-1 chemosensitive cells, we found high levels of oxidative stress and low level of these two proteins, as well as their respective targets. In MiaPaCa-2 cells with a middle chemoresistance, we observed intermediate features. When Nrf2 and YAP were inhibited in PANC-1 cells by Ailanthone, a plant extract, we observed a reduction of viability, thus sustaining the role of these two proteins in maintaining the PDAC chemoresistance. We then delved into the mechanisms of the Nrf2 and YAP protein upregulation in chemoresistance, discovering that it was at a post-translational level since the mRNA expressions did not match the protein levels. Treatments of PANC-1 cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide further confirmed this observation. The expression of DUB3 and OTUD1 deubiquitinases, involved in the control of Nrf2 and YAP protein level, respectively, was also investigated. Both protein expressions were higher in PANC-1 cells, intermediate in MiaPaCa-2 cells, and lower in CFPAC-1 cells. When DUB3 or OTUD1 were silenced, both Nrf2 and YAP expressions were downregulated. Importantly, in deubiquitinase-silenced cells, we observed a great reduction of proliferation and a higher sensitivity to gemcitabine treatment, suggesting that DUB3 and OTUD1 can represent a suitable target to overcome chemoresistance in PDAC cells.

Post-translational down-regulation of Nrf2 and YAP proteins, by targeting deubiquitinases, reduces growth and chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer cells

Grattarola M.;Cucci M. A.;Roetto A.;Dianzani C.;Barrera G.;Pizzimenti S.
2021-01-01

Abstract

The intrinsic chemoresistance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents the main obstacle in treating this aggressive malignancy. It has been observed that high antioxidant levels and upregulated Nrf2 and the YAP protein expression can be involved in PDAC chemoresistance. The mechanisms of Nrf2 and YAP increase need to be clarified. We chose a panel of PDAC cell lines with diverse sensitivity to cisplatin and gemcitabine. In PANC-1 chemoresistant cells, we found a low level of oxidative stress and high levels of Nrf2 and YAP protein expressions and their respective targets. On the contrary, in CFPAC-1 chemosensitive cells, we found high levels of oxidative stress and low level of these two proteins, as well as their respective targets. In MiaPaCa-2 cells with a middle chemoresistance, we observed intermediate features. When Nrf2 and YAP were inhibited in PANC-1 cells by Ailanthone, a plant extract, we observed a reduction of viability, thus sustaining the role of these two proteins in maintaining the PDAC chemoresistance. We then delved into the mechanisms of the Nrf2 and YAP protein upregulation in chemoresistance, discovering that it was at a post-translational level since the mRNA expressions did not match the protein levels. Treatments of PANC-1 cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide further confirmed this observation. The expression of DUB3 and OTUD1 deubiquitinases, involved in the control of Nrf2 and YAP protein level, respectively, was also investigated. Both protein expressions were higher in PANC-1 cells, intermediate in MiaPaCa-2 cells, and lower in CFPAC-1 cells. When DUB3 or OTUD1 were silenced, both Nrf2 and YAP expressions were downregulated. Importantly, in deubiquitinase-silenced cells, we observed a great reduction of proliferation and a higher sensitivity to gemcitabine treatment, suggesting that DUB3 and OTUD1 can represent a suitable target to overcome chemoresistance in PDAC cells.
2021
174
202
210
Chemoresistance; Deubiquitinases; Nrf2; Oxidative stress; PDAC cells; YAP; Cell Line, Tumor; Deubiquitinating Enzymes; Down-Regulation; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm; Humans; Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases; NF-E2-Related Factor 2; Pancreatic Neoplasms
Grattarola M.; Cucci M.A.; Roetto A.; Dianzani C.; Barrera G.; Pizzimenti S.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1814891
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