: Three-dimensional virtual models (3DVMs) are nowadays under scrutiny to improve partial nephrectomy (PN) outcomes. This report aims to analyze their impact on renal function preservation after minimally invasive PN. A total of 100 patients treated with minimally invasive PN with contrast-enhanced computed tomography from which a 3DVM was obtained, and having undergone baseline and 3rd month postoperative renal scans were prospectively enrolled and compared with a control group of 251 patients without 3DVMs. Weighted differential of pre- and postoperative renal scan-based effective renal plasmatic flow (b-WD ERPF) was calculated, according to the availability of 3DVMs and PADUA risk category. Multivariable logistic regression (MLR) models predicting a significant loss of renal function (LORF; ERPF drop >20%) were performed, overall and according to PADUA risk categories. The b-WD ERPF of the 3DVM group showed significantly lower LORF (-10%) than that of the control group (-19.6%, p = 0.02). In MLR, the availability of a 3DVM was found to be the only protective factor against a significant LORF (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3, p = 0.002). Moreover, after stratification as per tumor surgical complexity, this protective role was observed in both PADUA 8-9 and ≥10 category risk patients (OR = 0.3, p = 0.03 and OR = 0.1, p = 0.01). PATIENT SUMMARY: The drop in operated kidney function was significantly lower in surgeries assisted by three-dimensional virtual models (3VDMs), indicating that the availability of a 3VDM is the only protective factor against a significant functional damage.
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