Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes that is extracted primarily from pineapples. It is present in almost all the aerial parts of the plant—the peels, leaves, stems and fruit—although only the fruit and stems contain significant amounts. The market-demand for bromelain is quickly increasing, especially in the health sector as it can be used as a drug and/or nutraceutical. Although the complete molecular mechanism has not been fully identified, bromelain possesses several properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oedema, antithrombotic and fibrinolytic, mucolytic, anticancer and cicatrizing effects that have been evaluated in several clinical trials. However, one of the main limitations for the clinical use of this supplement is the varying composition of extracts, which leads to heterogeneity in results and, therefore, difficulty in making evidence-based prescriptions. In fact, different geographic locations, land and modes of cultivation, as well as extraction methods, can all give extracts with different activities, depending on the plant part used. Additionally, although novel extraction techniques have been developed to improve bromelain purification and extraction and give higher yields without loss in enzymatic activity, these methods are still expensive and challenging. This review will describe the state of the art in the main conventional and unconventional extraction and purification methods of bromelain and discuss the advantages and limitations of these strategies. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles and the clinical applications that have arisen from randomized controlled clinical trials are also discussed. Finally, future perspectives for bromelain extracts will be presented.

Recent advances and insights into bromelain processing, pharmacokinetics and therapeutic uses

Alessandro Colletti;Mauro Marengo;Salvatore Adinolfi;Giancarlo Cravotto
2021-01-01

Abstract

Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes that is extracted primarily from pineapples. It is present in almost all the aerial parts of the plant—the peels, leaves, stems and fruit—although only the fruit and stems contain significant amounts. The market-demand for bromelain is quickly increasing, especially in the health sector as it can be used as a drug and/or nutraceutical. Although the complete molecular mechanism has not been fully identified, bromelain possesses several properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oedema, antithrombotic and fibrinolytic, mucolytic, anticancer and cicatrizing effects that have been evaluated in several clinical trials. However, one of the main limitations for the clinical use of this supplement is the varying composition of extracts, which leads to heterogeneity in results and, therefore, difficulty in making evidence-based prescriptions. In fact, different geographic locations, land and modes of cultivation, as well as extraction methods, can all give extracts with different activities, depending on the plant part used. Additionally, although novel extraction techniques have been developed to improve bromelain purification and extraction and give higher yields without loss in enzymatic activity, these methods are still expensive and challenging. This review will describe the state of the art in the main conventional and unconventional extraction and purification methods of bromelain and discuss the advantages and limitations of these strategies. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles and the clinical applications that have arisen from randomized controlled clinical trials are also discussed. Finally, future perspectives for bromelain extracts will be presented.
2021
11
18
1
20
bromelain, pineapple, inflammation, extraction methods, clinical trials
Alessandro Colletti, Shuyi Li, Mauro Marengo, Salvatore Adinolfi, Giancarlo Cravotto
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1831225
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