Background: Methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, CblC type (OMIM #277400) is the most common disorder of cobalamin intracellular metabolism, an autosomal recessive disease, whose biochemical hallmarks are hyperhomocysteinemia, methylmalonic aciduria and low plasma methionine. Despite being a well-recognized disease for pediatricians, there is scarce awareness of its adult presentation. A thorough analysis and discussion of cobalamin C defect presentation in adult patients has never been extensively performed. This article reviews the published data and adds a new case of the latest onset of symptoms ever described for the disease. Results: We present the emblematic case of a 45-year-old male, describing the diagnostic odyssey he ventured through to get to the appropriate treatment and molecular diagnosis. Furthermore, available clinical, biochemical and molecular data from 22 reports on cases and case series were collected, resulting in 45 adult-onset CblC cases, including our own. We describe the onset of the disease in adulthood, encompassing neurological, psychiatric, renal, ophthalmic and thromboembolic symptoms. In all cases treatment with intramuscular hydroxycobalamin was effective in reversing symptoms. From a molecular point of view adult patients are usually compound heterozygous carriers of a truncating and a non-truncating variant in the MMACHC gene. Conclusion: Adult onset CblC disease is a rare disorder whose diagnosis can be delayed due to poor awareness regarding its presenting insidious symptoms and biochemical hallmarks. To avoid misdiagnosis, we suggest that adult onset CblC deficiency is acknowledged as a separate entity from pediatric late onset cases, and that the disease is considered in the differential diagnosis in adult patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndromes and/or slow unexplained decline in renal function and/or idiopathic neuropathies, spinal cord degenerations, ataxias and/or recurrent thrombosis and/or visual field defects, maculopathy and optic disc atrophy. Plasma homocysteine measurement should be the first line for differential diagnosis when the disease is suspected. To further aid diagnosis, it is important that genes belonging to the intracellular cobalamin pathway are included within gene panels routinely tested for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and chronic kidney disorders.

Adult-onset CblC deficiency: a challenging diagnosis involving different adult clinical specialists

Kalantari S.;Barreca A.;Vaisitti T.;Amoroso A.;Deaglio S.;Porta F.;Spada M.
2022

Abstract

Background: Methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, CblC type (OMIM #277400) is the most common disorder of cobalamin intracellular metabolism, an autosomal recessive disease, whose biochemical hallmarks are hyperhomocysteinemia, methylmalonic aciduria and low plasma methionine. Despite being a well-recognized disease for pediatricians, there is scarce awareness of its adult presentation. A thorough analysis and discussion of cobalamin C defect presentation in adult patients has never been extensively performed. This article reviews the published data and adds a new case of the latest onset of symptoms ever described for the disease. Results: We present the emblematic case of a 45-year-old male, describing the diagnostic odyssey he ventured through to get to the appropriate treatment and molecular diagnosis. Furthermore, available clinical, biochemical and molecular data from 22 reports on cases and case series were collected, resulting in 45 adult-onset CblC cases, including our own. We describe the onset of the disease in adulthood, encompassing neurological, psychiatric, renal, ophthalmic and thromboembolic symptoms. In all cases treatment with intramuscular hydroxycobalamin was effective in reversing symptoms. From a molecular point of view adult patients are usually compound heterozygous carriers of a truncating and a non-truncating variant in the MMACHC gene. Conclusion: Adult onset CblC disease is a rare disorder whose diagnosis can be delayed due to poor awareness regarding its presenting insidious symptoms and biochemical hallmarks. To avoid misdiagnosis, we suggest that adult onset CblC deficiency is acknowledged as a separate entity from pediatric late onset cases, and that the disease is considered in the differential diagnosis in adult patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndromes and/or slow unexplained decline in renal function and/or idiopathic neuropathies, spinal cord degenerations, ataxias and/or recurrent thrombosis and/or visual field defects, maculopathy and optic disc atrophy. Plasma homocysteine measurement should be the first line for differential diagnosis when the disease is suspected. To further aid diagnosis, it is important that genes belonging to the intracellular cobalamin pathway are included within gene panels routinely tested for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and chronic kidney disorders.
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Adult-onset; aHUS; CblC; Cobalamin C deficiency; Homocysteine; Methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria; Neuropsychiatric presentation; Renal function decline; Adult; Child; Heterozygote; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Oxidoreductases; Vitamin B 12; Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Homocystinuria; Vitamin B 12 Deficiency
Kalantari S.; Brezzi B.; Bracciama V.; Barreca A.; Nozza P.; Vaisitti T.; Amoroso A.; Deaglio S.; Manganaro M.; Porta F.; Spada M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1849385
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