It has been proved that the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is closely related to the intrinsic features of the photosensitizer (PS). Over the recent years, several efforts have been devoted to the discovery of novel and more efficient photosensitizers showing higher efficacy and lower side effects. In this context, squaraine and cyanine dyes have been reported to potentially overcome the drawbacks related to the traditional PSs. In fact, squaraines and cyanines are characterized by sharp and intense absorption bands and narrow emission bands with high extinction coefficients typically in the red and near-infrared region, good photo and thermal stability and a strong fluorescent emission in organic solvents. In addition, biocompatibility and low toxicity make them suitable for biological applications. Despite these interesting intrinsic features, their chemical instability and self-aggregation properties in biological media still limit their use in PDT. To overcome these drawbacks, the self-assembly and incorporation into smart nanoparticle systems are forwarded promising approaches that can control their physicochemical properties, providing rational solutions for the limitation of free dye administration in the PDT application. The present review summarizes the latest advances in squaraine and cyanine dyes for PDT application, analyzing the different strategies, i.e.the self-assembly and the incorporation into nanoparticles, to further enhance their photochemical properties and therapeutic potential. The in vivo assessments are still limited, thus further delaying their effective application in PDT. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Polymethine dyes for PDT: recent advances and perspectives to drive future applications

Dereje D. M.;Pontremoli C.;Moran Plata M. J.;Visentin S.;Barbero N.
2022

Abstract

It has been proved that the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is closely related to the intrinsic features of the photosensitizer (PS). Over the recent years, several efforts have been devoted to the discovery of novel and more efficient photosensitizers showing higher efficacy and lower side effects. In this context, squaraine and cyanine dyes have been reported to potentially overcome the drawbacks related to the traditional PSs. In fact, squaraines and cyanines are characterized by sharp and intense absorption bands and narrow emission bands with high extinction coefficients typically in the red and near-infrared region, good photo and thermal stability and a strong fluorescent emission in organic solvents. In addition, biocompatibility and low toxicity make them suitable for biological applications. Despite these interesting intrinsic features, their chemical instability and self-aggregation properties in biological media still limit their use in PDT. To overcome these drawbacks, the self-assembly and incorporation into smart nanoparticle systems are forwarded promising approaches that can control their physicochemical properties, providing rational solutions for the limitation of free dye administration in the PDT application. The present review summarizes the latest advances in squaraine and cyanine dyes for PDT application, analyzing the different strategies, i.e.the self-assembly and the incorporation into nanoparticles, to further enhance their photochemical properties and therapeutic potential. The in vivo assessments are still limited, thus further delaying their effective application in PDT. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
PHOTOCHEMICAL & PHOTOBIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
21
3
397
419
Cyanines; Photodynamic therapy; Polymethine dyes; Self-assembly; Smart nanocarrier; Squaraines; Coloring Agents; Indoles; Photosensitizing Agents; Triazenes; Photochemotherapy
Dereje D.M.; Pontremoli C.; Moran Plata M.J.; Visentin S.; Barbero N.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1851573
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