Background: Diet is considered the cornerstone of lipid management in hyperlipidemic children but evidence to demonstrate the effects of nutrient benefits on the lipid profile is limited. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Mediterranean diet on low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and non-high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) decrease in primary hyperlipidemia affected children and in the achievement of therapeutical target levels. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was used, recruiting n = 223 children (10.05 ± 3.26 mean age years) with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (n = 61, 27%) and polygenic hypercholesterolemia (PH) (n =162, 73%). Secondary hyperlipidemias were excluded. Based on LDL-C and non-HDL-C decrease, participants were divided into two groups, named the Responder Group and Non-Responder Group. Participants and their families underwent dietary education by an expert nutritionist and were asked to fill in a weekly diary to be delivered at visits. Dietary indications were in line with daily caloric requirement, daily food quality and quantity intakes typical of the Mediterranean diet. These include carbohydrates, extra virgin olive oil, yoghurt and milk derivatives, fish and vegetable proteins, fresh seasonal vegetables and fresh fruits. Nuts or almonds were also recommended. The advice to limit intakes of meat, in particular red meat, and caution against junk food and sugar added food and beverages was provided. At medical visits, carried out at baseline (T0) and 6 months later (T1), children underwent anthropometric measurements and blood collection. Standard kits and methods were applied for lipid analysis. Statistical methods were performed by SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Signed informed consent was given by parents according to the Declaration of Helsinki and the study was approved by the Local Committee. Results: The Responder Group (n = 156/223, 70%) included 45 FH and 111 PH children, while the Non-Responder Group (n = 67/223, 30%) included 16 FH and 51 PH children. The Responder Group showed total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C and non-HDL-C median percentage decreases of 9.45, 13.51 and 10.90, respectively. These statistically significant changes (p ≤ 0.0001) were similar in the FH and PH subgroups but just PH subjects reached the LDL-C and non-HDL-C target, which fell below 130 mg/dL and 145 mg/dL, respectively. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were the main dietary parameter that distinguished between the Responder Group and the Non-Responder Group (p = 0.014). Positive correlations were found at T1 between dietary total lipids, SFAs and cholesterol with serum LDL-C, non-HDL-C and TC variations. These latter serum parameters had an inverse correlation with dietary carbohydrate at T1. Among macronutrients, SFAs were finally demonstrated to be the predictor of serum lipids variation at T1. Conclusions: The dietary intervention with a Mediterranean diet in children with primary hyperlipidemia significantly improves the lipid profile both in FH and PH subgroups and allows target levels of LDL-C and non-HDL-C in PH subjects to be reached. Responsiveness benefits should be primarily attributed to the reduction in SFAs, but changes in dietary lipids, cholesterol and carbohydrate intake may also play a role. In contrast, the Non-Responder Group showed a worsening of lipid profile regarding the unchanged diet.

Mediterranean Dietary Treatment in Hyperlipidemic Children: Should It Be an Option?

Massini, Giulia;Buganza, Raffaele;Nyffenegger, Anna;de Sanctis, Luisa;Guardamagna, Ornella
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Diet is considered the cornerstone of lipid management in hyperlipidemic children but evidence to demonstrate the effects of nutrient benefits on the lipid profile is limited. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Mediterranean diet on low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and non-high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) decrease in primary hyperlipidemia affected children and in the achievement of therapeutical target levels. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was used, recruiting n = 223 children (10.05 ± 3.26 mean age years) with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (n = 61, 27%) and polygenic hypercholesterolemia (PH) (n =162, 73%). Secondary hyperlipidemias were excluded. Based on LDL-C and non-HDL-C decrease, participants were divided into two groups, named the Responder Group and Non-Responder Group. Participants and their families underwent dietary education by an expert nutritionist and were asked to fill in a weekly diary to be delivered at visits. Dietary indications were in line with daily caloric requirement, daily food quality and quantity intakes typical of the Mediterranean diet. These include carbohydrates, extra virgin olive oil, yoghurt and milk derivatives, fish and vegetable proteins, fresh seasonal vegetables and fresh fruits. Nuts or almonds were also recommended. The advice to limit intakes of meat, in particular red meat, and caution against junk food and sugar added food and beverages was provided. At medical visits, carried out at baseline (T0) and 6 months later (T1), children underwent anthropometric measurements and blood collection. Standard kits and methods were applied for lipid analysis. Statistical methods were performed by SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Signed informed consent was given by parents according to the Declaration of Helsinki and the study was approved by the Local Committee. Results: The Responder Group (n = 156/223, 70%) included 45 FH and 111 PH children, while the Non-Responder Group (n = 67/223, 30%) included 16 FH and 51 PH children. The Responder Group showed total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C and non-HDL-C median percentage decreases of 9.45, 13.51 and 10.90, respectively. These statistically significant changes (p ≤ 0.0001) were similar in the FH and PH subgroups but just PH subjects reached the LDL-C and non-HDL-C target, which fell below 130 mg/dL and 145 mg/dL, respectively. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were the main dietary parameter that distinguished between the Responder Group and the Non-Responder Group (p = 0.014). Positive correlations were found at T1 between dietary total lipids, SFAs and cholesterol with serum LDL-C, non-HDL-C and TC variations. These latter serum parameters had an inverse correlation with dietary carbohydrate at T1. Among macronutrients, SFAs were finally demonstrated to be the predictor of serum lipids variation at T1. Conclusions: The dietary intervention with a Mediterranean diet in children with primary hyperlipidemia significantly improves the lipid profile both in FH and PH subgroups and allows target levels of LDL-C and non-HDL-C in PH subjects to be reached. Responsiveness benefits should be primarily attributed to the reduction in SFAs, but changes in dietary lipids, cholesterol and carbohydrate intake may also play a role. In contrast, the Non-Responder Group showed a worsening of lipid profile regarding the unchanged diet.
2022
14
7
1
14
Familial Hypercholesterolemia; LDL-C therapeutical target; Mediterranean diet; children; dietary treatment; polygenic hypercholesterolemia; primary hyperlipidemia; Cholesterol; Cholesterol, LDL; Fatty Acids; Humans; Retrospective Studies; Diet, Mediterranean; Hypercholesterolemia; Hyperlipidemias; Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II
Massini, Giulia; Capra, Nicolò; Buganza, Raffaele; Nyffenegger, Anna; de Sanctis, Luisa; Guardamagna, Ornella
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1859020
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