Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) receives growing interest in different psychiatric clinical settings (emergency, inpatient, and outpatient services). Despite its usefulness, TDM remains underemployed in mental health. This is partly due to the need for evidence about the relationship between drug serum concentration and efficacy and tolerability, both in the general population and even more in subpopulations with atypical pharmacokinetics. This work aims at reviewing the scientific literature published after 2017, when the most recent guidelines about the use of TDM in mental health were written. We found 164 pertinent records that we included in the review. Some promising studies highlighted the possibility of correlating early drug serum concentration and clinical efficacy and safety, especially for antipsychotics, potentially enabling clinicians to make decisions on early laboratory findings and not proceeding by trial and error. About populations with pharmacokinetic peculiarities, the latest studies confirmed very common alterations in drug blood levels in pregnant women, generally with a progressive decrease over pregnancy and a very relevant dose-adjusted concentration increase in the elderly. For adolescents also, several drugs result in having different dose-related concentration values compared to adults. These findings stress the recommendation to use TDM in these populations to ensure a safe and effective treatment. Moreover, the integration of TDM with pharmacogenetic analyses may allow clinicians to adopt precise treatments, addressing therapy on an individual pharmacometabolic basis. Mini-invasive TDM procedures that may be easily performed at home or in a point-of-care are very promising and may represent a turning point toward an extensive real-world TDM application. Although the highlighted recent evidence, research efforts have to be carried on: further studies, especially prospective and fixed-dose, are needed to replicate present findings and provide clearer knowledge on relationships between dose, serum concentration, and efficacy/safety.

Current Status of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Mental Health Treatment: A Review

Pennazio, Filippo;Brasso, Claudio;Villari, Vincenzo;Rocca, Paola
2022-01-01

Abstract

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) receives growing interest in different psychiatric clinical settings (emergency, inpatient, and outpatient services). Despite its usefulness, TDM remains underemployed in mental health. This is partly due to the need for evidence about the relationship between drug serum concentration and efficacy and tolerability, both in the general population and even more in subpopulations with atypical pharmacokinetics. This work aims at reviewing the scientific literature published after 2017, when the most recent guidelines about the use of TDM in mental health were written. We found 164 pertinent records that we included in the review. Some promising studies highlighted the possibility of correlating early drug serum concentration and clinical efficacy and safety, especially for antipsychotics, potentially enabling clinicians to make decisions on early laboratory findings and not proceeding by trial and error. About populations with pharmacokinetic peculiarities, the latest studies confirmed very common alterations in drug blood levels in pregnant women, generally with a progressive decrease over pregnancy and a very relevant dose-adjusted concentration increase in the elderly. For adolescents also, several drugs result in having different dose-related concentration values compared to adults. These findings stress the recommendation to use TDM in these populations to ensure a safe and effective treatment. Moreover, the integration of TDM with pharmacogenetic analyses may allow clinicians to adopt precise treatments, addressing therapy on an individual pharmacometabolic basis. Mini-invasive TDM procedures that may be easily performed at home or in a point-of-care are very promising and may represent a turning point toward an extensive real-world TDM application. Although the highlighted recent evidence, research efforts have to be carried on: further studies, especially prospective and fixed-dose, are needed to replicate present findings and provide clearer knowledge on relationships between dose, serum concentration, and efficacy/safety.
2022
14
12
2674
2710
bipolar and related disorders; depressive disorder; medication adherence; schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders; therapeutic drug monitoring; treatment efficacy
Pennazio, Filippo; Brasso, Claudio; Villari, Vincenzo; Rocca, Paola
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1885149
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