Background: The systematic use of confirmatory tests in the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) increases costs, risks and complexity to the diagnostic work-up. In light of this, some authors proposed aldosterone-to-renin (ARR) cut-offs and/or integrated flow-charts to avoid this step. Patients with resistant hypertension (RH), however, are characterized by a dysregulated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, even in the absence of PA. Thus, it is unclear whether these strategies might be applied with the same diagnostic reliability in the setting of RH. Methods: We enrolled 129 consecutive patients diagnosed with RH and no other causes of secondary hypertension. All patients underwent full biochemical assessment for PA, encompassing both basal measurements and a saline infusion test. Results: 34/129 patients (26.4%) were diagnosed with PA. ARR alone provided a moderate-to-high accuracy in predicting the diagnosis of PA (AUC=0.908). Among normokalemic patients, the ARR value that maximized the diagnostic accuracy, as identified by the Youden index, was equal to 41.8 (ng/dL)/(ng/mL/h), and was characterized by a sensitivity and a specificity of 100% and 67%, respectively (AUC=0.882); an ARR > 179.6 (ng/dL)/(ng/mL/h) provided a 100% specificity for the diagnosis of PA, but was associated with a very low sensitivity of 20%. Among hypokalemic patients, the ARR value that maximized the diagnostic accuracy, as identified by the Youden index, was equal to 49.2 (ng/dL)/(ng/mL/h), and was characterized by a sensitivity and a specificity of 100% and 83%, respectively (AUC=0.941); an ARR > 104.0 (ng/dL)/(ng/mL/h) provided a 100% specificity for the diagnosis of PA, with a sensitivity of 64%. Conclusions: Among normokalemic patients, there was a wide overlap in ARR values between those with PA and those with essential RH; the possibility to skip a confirmatory test should thus be considered with caution in this setting. A better discriminating ability could be seen in the presence of hypokalemia; in this case, ARR alone may be sufficient to skip confirmatory tests in a suitable percentage of patients.

Predictive performance of aldosterone-to-renin ratio in the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism in patients with resistant hypertension

Bioletto, Fabio
First
;
Lopez, Chiara;Bollati, Martina;Arata, Stefano;Procopio, Matteo;Ponzetto, Federico;Beccuti, Guglielmo;Mengozzi, Giulio;Ghigo, Ezio;Maccario, Mauro;Parasiliti-Caprino, Mirko
Last
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background: The systematic use of confirmatory tests in the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) increases costs, risks and complexity to the diagnostic work-up. In light of this, some authors proposed aldosterone-to-renin (ARR) cut-offs and/or integrated flow-charts to avoid this step. Patients with resistant hypertension (RH), however, are characterized by a dysregulated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, even in the absence of PA. Thus, it is unclear whether these strategies might be applied with the same diagnostic reliability in the setting of RH. Methods: We enrolled 129 consecutive patients diagnosed with RH and no other causes of secondary hypertension. All patients underwent full biochemical assessment for PA, encompassing both basal measurements and a saline infusion test. Results: 34/129 patients (26.4%) were diagnosed with PA. ARR alone provided a moderate-to-high accuracy in predicting the diagnosis of PA (AUC=0.908). Among normokalemic patients, the ARR value that maximized the diagnostic accuracy, as identified by the Youden index, was equal to 41.8 (ng/dL)/(ng/mL/h), and was characterized by a sensitivity and a specificity of 100% and 67%, respectively (AUC=0.882); an ARR > 179.6 (ng/dL)/(ng/mL/h) provided a 100% specificity for the diagnosis of PA, but was associated with a very low sensitivity of 20%. Among hypokalemic patients, the ARR value that maximized the diagnostic accuracy, as identified by the Youden index, was equal to 49.2 (ng/dL)/(ng/mL/h), and was characterized by a sensitivity and a specificity of 100% and 83%, respectively (AUC=0.941); an ARR > 104.0 (ng/dL)/(ng/mL/h) provided a 100% specificity for the diagnosis of PA, with a sensitivity of 64%. Conclusions: Among normokalemic patients, there was a wide overlap in ARR values between those with PA and those with essential RH; the possibility to skip a confirmatory test should thus be considered with caution in this setting. A better discriminating ability could be seen in the presence of hypokalemia; in this case, ARR alone may be sufficient to skip confirmatory tests in a suitable percentage of patients.
2023
14
1
8
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2023.1145186/full
aldosterone-to-renin ratio, aldosterone, renin, primary aldosteronism, resistant hypertension
Bioletto, Fabio; Lopez, Chiara; Bollati, Martina; Arata, Stefano; Procopio, Matteo; Ponzetto, Federico; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Mengozzi, Giulio; Ghigo, Ezio; Maccario, Mauro; Parasiliti-Caprino, Mirko
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1902993
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