Besides the physiological regulation of water, sodium, and potassium homeostasis, aldosterone modulates several physiological and pathological processes in the cardiovascular system. At the vascular level, aldosterone excess stimulates endothelial dysfunction and infiltration of inflammatory cells, enhances the development of the atherosclerotic plaque, and favors plaque instability, arterial stiffness, and calcification. At the cardiac level, aldosterone increases cardiac inflammation, fibrosis, and myocardial hypertrophy. As a clinical consequence, high aldosterone levels are associated with enhanced risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, especially when aldosterone secretion is inappropriate for renin levels and sodium intake, as in primary aldosteronism. Several clinical trials showed that mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists reduce cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, but inconclusive results were reported for other cardiovascular conditions, such as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, myocardial infarction, and atrial fibrillation. In patients with primary aldosteronism, adrenalectomy or treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists significantly mitigate adverse aldosterone effects, reducing the risk of cardiovascular events, mortality, and incident atrial fibrillation. In this review, we will summarize the major preclinical and clinical studies investigating the cardiovascular damage mediated by aldosterone and the protective effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for the reduction of cardiovascular risk in patients with cardiovascular diseases and primary aldosteronism.

Aldosterone as a Mediator of Cardiovascular Damage

Buffolo, Fabrizio;Tetti, Martina;Mulatero, Paolo;Monticone, Silvia
2022-01-01

Abstract

Besides the physiological regulation of water, sodium, and potassium homeostasis, aldosterone modulates several physiological and pathological processes in the cardiovascular system. At the vascular level, aldosterone excess stimulates endothelial dysfunction and infiltration of inflammatory cells, enhances the development of the atherosclerotic plaque, and favors plaque instability, arterial stiffness, and calcification. At the cardiac level, aldosterone increases cardiac inflammation, fibrosis, and myocardial hypertrophy. As a clinical consequence, high aldosterone levels are associated with enhanced risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, especially when aldosterone secretion is inappropriate for renin levels and sodium intake, as in primary aldosteronism. Several clinical trials showed that mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists reduce cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, but inconclusive results were reported for other cardiovascular conditions, such as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, myocardial infarction, and atrial fibrillation. In patients with primary aldosteronism, adrenalectomy or treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists significantly mitigate adverse aldosterone effects, reducing the risk of cardiovascular events, mortality, and incident atrial fibrillation. In this review, we will summarize the major preclinical and clinical studies investigating the cardiovascular damage mediated by aldosterone and the protective effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for the reduction of cardiovascular risk in patients with cardiovascular diseases and primary aldosteronism.
2022
79
9
1899
1911
aldosterone; atrial fibrillation; heart failure; mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists; myocardial infarction
Buffolo, Fabrizio; Tetti, Martina; Mulatero, Paolo; Monticone, Silvia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1945515
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