The viability of some nitration pathways is explored for benzene (B), naphthalene (N), and in part for pyrene (P). In principle, functionalization can either take place by direct nitration (NO3 or N2O5 attack) or be initiated by more reactive species, as the nitrate and hydroxyl radicals. The direct attack of the NO2 radical on B and N, followed by abstraction of the H geminal to the nitro group (most likely accomplished by 3O2) could yield the final nitro-derivatives. Nevertheless, the initial step (NO2 attack) involves significant free energy barriers. N2O5 proves to be an even worst nitrating agent. These results rule out direct nitration at room temperature. Instead, NO3 and, even more easly, HO can form Π-delocalized nitrixy- or hydr oxycyclohexadienyl radicals. A subsequent NO2 attack can produce several regio- and diastereoisomers of the nitroxy-nitro or hydroxy-nitro cyclohexadienes. In this respect, the competition between NO2 and O2 is considered: the rate ratios are such to indicate that the NO3 and HO initiated pathways are the major source of nitroarenes. Whereas HNO3 elimination is feasible, H2O elimination presents, by contrast, a high barrier. Under combustion conditions the NO2 direct nitration pathway is more feasible, but remains a minor channel.

Aromatic Hydrocarbon Nitration under Tropospheric and Combustion Conditions. A Theoretical Mechanistic Study

GHIGO, Giovanni;MARANZANA, Andrea;TONACHINI, Glauco
2006

Abstract

The viability of some nitration pathways is explored for benzene (B), naphthalene (N), and in part for pyrene (P). In principle, functionalization can either take place by direct nitration (NO3 or N2O5 attack) or be initiated by more reactive species, as the nitrate and hydroxyl radicals. The direct attack of the NO2 radical on B and N, followed by abstraction of the H geminal to the nitro group (most likely accomplished by 3O2) could yield the final nitro-derivatives. Nevertheless, the initial step (NO2 attack) involves significant free energy barriers. N2O5 proves to be an even worst nitrating agent. These results rule out direct nitration at room temperature. Instead, NO3 and, even more easly, HO can form Π-delocalized nitrixy- or hydr oxycyclohexadienyl radicals. A subsequent NO2 attack can produce several regio- and diastereoisomers of the nitroxy-nitro or hydroxy-nitro cyclohexadienes. In this respect, the competition between NO2 and O2 is considered: the rate ratios are such to indicate that the NO3 and HO initiated pathways are the major source of nitroarenes. Whereas HNO3 elimination is feasible, H2O elimination presents, by contrast, a high barrier. Under combustion conditions the NO2 direct nitration pathway is more feasible, but remains a minor channel.
110
13270
13282
GHIGO G; CAUSA' M; MARANZANA A; TONACHINI G
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/21754
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