Bio-chips need active surfaces for sensing, actuation, synthesis and analysis. Thus, they should be realized with materials, widely suppresing corrosion and hydrolyses in combination with conducting, semiconducting and insulating properties, biocompatibility and chemical inertness. An ideal candidate is diamond. Two forms are considered: single crystal and nanocrystalline diamond, the later also containing non-diamond phases and graphitic grain boundaries. Thei surface properties and functionalization are discussed togheter with their electrode, ISFET and cell attachment and related neuron characteristics. Furthermore an outlook is given for system approaches
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