Some environmental contaminants interact with hormones and may exert adverse consequences due to their actions as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Exposure in people is typically due to contamination of the food chain, inhalation of contaminated house dust, or occupational exposure. EDCs include pesticides and herbicides (such as diphenyl-dichloro-trichloroethane, DDT, or its metabolites), methoxychlor, biocides, heat stabilizers and chemical catalysts (such as tributyltin, TBT), plastic contaminants (e.g. bisphenol A, BPA), pharmaceuticals (i.e. diethylstilbestrol, DES; 17alpha-ethynilestradiol, EE2), or dietary components (such as phytoestrogens). The goal of this review is to address sources, effects and actions of EDCs, with an emphasis on topics discussed at the International Congress on Steroids and the Nervous System. EDCs may alter reproductively-relevant or nonreproductive, sexually-dimorphic behaviors. In addition, EDCs may have significant effects on neurodevelopmental processes, influencing morphology of sexually dimorphic cerebral circuits. Exposure to EDCs is more dangerous if it occurs during specific “critical periods” of life, such as intrauterine, perinatal, juvenile or puberty periods, when organisms are more sensitive to hormonal disruption, than in other periods. However, exposure to EDCs in adulthood also can alter physiology. Several EDCs are xenoestrogens, may alter serum lipid concentrations, or metabolism enzymes that are necessary for converting cholesterol to steroid hormones, ultimately altering production of E2 and/or other steroids. Finally, many EDCs may have actions via, or independent of, classic actions at cognate steroid receptors. EDCs may have effects through numerous other substrates, such as the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), signal transduction pathways, calcium influx, and/or neurotransmitter receptors. Thus, EDCs, from varied sources, may have organizational effects during development, and/or activational effects in adulthood, that influence sexuallydimorphic, reproductively-relevant processes or other functions, by mimicking, antagonizing, or altering steroidal actions.

Endocrine disrupters: a review of some sources, effects, and mechanisms of actions on behavior and neuroendocrine systems

BO, Elisabetta;PANZICA, Giancarlo
2012

Abstract

Some environmental contaminants interact with hormones and may exert adverse consequences due to their actions as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Exposure in people is typically due to contamination of the food chain, inhalation of contaminated house dust, or occupational exposure. EDCs include pesticides and herbicides (such as diphenyl-dichloro-trichloroethane, DDT, or its metabolites), methoxychlor, biocides, heat stabilizers and chemical catalysts (such as tributyltin, TBT), plastic contaminants (e.g. bisphenol A, BPA), pharmaceuticals (i.e. diethylstilbestrol, DES; 17alpha-ethynilestradiol, EE2), or dietary components (such as phytoestrogens). The goal of this review is to address sources, effects and actions of EDCs, with an emphasis on topics discussed at the International Congress on Steroids and the Nervous System. EDCs may alter reproductively-relevant or nonreproductive, sexually-dimorphic behaviors. In addition, EDCs may have significant effects on neurodevelopmental processes, influencing morphology of sexually dimorphic cerebral circuits. Exposure to EDCs is more dangerous if it occurs during specific “critical periods” of life, such as intrauterine, perinatal, juvenile or puberty periods, when organisms are more sensitive to hormonal disruption, than in other periods. However, exposure to EDCs in adulthood also can alter physiology. Several EDCs are xenoestrogens, may alter serum lipid concentrations, or metabolism enzymes that are necessary for converting cholesterol to steroid hormones, ultimately altering production of E2 and/or other steroids. Finally, many EDCs may have actions via, or independent of, classic actions at cognate steroid receptors. EDCs may have effects through numerous other substrates, such as the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), signal transduction pathways, calcium influx, and/or neurotransmitter receptors. Thus, EDCs, from varied sources, may have organizational effects during development, and/or activational effects in adulthood, that influence sexuallydimorphic, reproductively-relevant processes or other functions, by mimicking, antagonizing, or altering steroidal actions.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3245362/
xenoestrogens; Endocrine disruptors; Bisphenol A; Tributyltin; Phytoestrogens
Frye C.; Bo E.; Calamandrei G.; Calzà L.; Dessì-Fulgheri F.; Fernandez M.; Fusani L.; Kah O.; Kajta M.; Le Page Y.; Patisaul H.B.; Venerosi A; Wojtowicz A.K.; Panzica G.C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/88647
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