This study investigates the impact of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent on the toxicity of the recipient water body and the effectiveness of the disinfection treatment applied (sodium hypochloride) to assure the compliance of both microbiological and toxicological emission limits. No toxicity was found in the majority of samples collected from the recipient river, upstream and downstream of the WWTP, using three different toxicity tests (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Only three samples presented toxic unit (TU) values with V. f ischeri, and one presented TU with P. subcapitata. The influent toxicity ranged from slightly toxic to toxic (TU = 0.68– 4.47) with V. fischeri, while only three samples presented TU values with the other tests. No toxicity was found in the absence of chlorination, while the mean toxicity was 3.42 ± 4.12 TU with chlorination in the effluent. Although no toxicity or very slight toxicity was found in the receiving water, its residual toxicity washigher than the US EPA Quality Standard in two samples. Escherichia coli concentration had a lower mean value in the chlorinated effluent: 13,993 ± 12,037 CFU/100 mL vs. 62,857 ± 80,526 CFU/100 mL for the not chlorinated effluent. This difference was shown to be significant (p < 0.05). E. coli in ten chlorinated samples was higher than the limit established by European and Italian Legislation. The mean highest trihalomethanes (THMs) value was found in the influent samples (2.79 ± 1.40 μg/L), while the mean highest disinfection by-products (DBPs) was found in the effluent samples (1.85 ± 2.25 μg/L). Significant correlations were found between toxicity, sodium hypochlorite, THMs, DBPs, E. coli, and residual chlorine. In conclusion, this study highlighted that the disinfection of wastewater effluents with sodium hypochlorite determines the increase of the toxicity, and sometimes is not enough to control the E. coli contamination.

Chlorination in a wastewater treatment plant: acute toxicityeffects of the effluent and of the recipient water body

PIGNATA, Cristina;FEA, Elisabetta;ROVERE, Renato;DEGAN, Raffaella;SCHILIRO', Tiziana;GILLI, Giorgio
2012

Abstract

This study investigates the impact of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent on the toxicity of the recipient water body and the effectiveness of the disinfection treatment applied (sodium hypochloride) to assure the compliance of both microbiological and toxicological emission limits. No toxicity was found in the majority of samples collected from the recipient river, upstream and downstream of the WWTP, using three different toxicity tests (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Only three samples presented toxic unit (TU) values with V. f ischeri, and one presented TU with P. subcapitata. The influent toxicity ranged from slightly toxic to toxic (TU = 0.68– 4.47) with V. fischeri, while only three samples presented TU values with the other tests. No toxicity was found in the absence of chlorination, while the mean toxicity was 3.42 ± 4.12 TU with chlorination in the effluent. Although no toxicity or very slight toxicity was found in the receiving water, its residual toxicity washigher than the US EPA Quality Standard in two samples. Escherichia coli concentration had a lower mean value in the chlorinated effluent: 13,993 ± 12,037 CFU/100 mL vs. 62,857 ± 80,526 CFU/100 mL for the not chlorinated effluent. This difference was shown to be significant (p < 0.05). E. coli in ten chlorinated samples was higher than the limit established by European and Italian Legislation. The mean highest trihalomethanes (THMs) value was found in the influent samples (2.79 ± 1.40 μg/L), while the mean highest disinfection by-products (DBPs) was found in the effluent samples (1.85 ± 2.25 μg/L). Significant correlations were found between toxicity, sodium hypochlorite, THMs, DBPs, E. coli, and residual chlorine. In conclusion, this study highlighted that the disinfection of wastewater effluents with sodium hypochlorite determines the increase of the toxicity, and sometimes is not enough to control the E. coli contamination.
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http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10661-011-2102-y
Wastewater; Chlorination; Toxicity; Trihalomethanes; Escherichia coli
Cristina Pignata; Elisabetta Fea; Renato Rovere; Raffaella Degan; Eugenio Lorenzi; Margherita de Ceglia; Tiziana Schiliro'; Giorgio Gilli
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/88818
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