OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that insulin reduces brain injury evoked by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of insulin remain unknown. Insulin is a well-known inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). Here, we investigate the role of GSK-3beta inhibition on I/R-induced cerebral injury in a rat model of insulinopenic diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were subjected to 30-min occlusion of common carotid arteries followed by 1 or 24 h of reperfusion. Insulin (2-12 IU/kg i.v.) or the selective GSK-3beta inhibitor TDZD-8 (0.2-3 mg/kg i.v.) was administered during reperfusion. RESULTS: Insulin or TDZD-8 dramatically reduced infarct volume and levels of S100B protein, a marker of cerebral injury. Both drugs induced phosphorylation of the Ser9 residue, thereby inactivating GSK-3beta in the rat hippocampus. Insulin, but not TDZD-8, lowered blood glucose. The hippocampi of the drug-treated animals displayed reduced oxidative stress at 1 h of reperfusion as shown by the decreased generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. I/R-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB was attenuated by both drug treatments. At 24 h of reperfusion, TDZD-8 and insulin significantly reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha; neutrophil infiltration, measured as myeloperoxidase activity and intercellular-adhesion-molecule-1 expression; and cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible-NO-synthase expression. CONCLUSIONS: Acute administration of insulin or TDZD-8 reduced cerebral I/R injury in diabetic rats. We propose that the inhibitory effect on the activity of GSK-3beta contributes to the protective effect of insulin independently of any effects on blood glucose.

Insulin reduces cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in the hippocampus of diabetic rats: a role for glycogen synthase kinase-3beta

COLLINO, Massimo;ARAGNO, Manuela;CASTIGLIA, Sara;BOCCUZZI, Giuseppe;FANTOZZI, Roberto
2009-01-01

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that insulin reduces brain injury evoked by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of insulin remain unknown. Insulin is a well-known inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). Here, we investigate the role of GSK-3beta inhibition on I/R-induced cerebral injury in a rat model of insulinopenic diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were subjected to 30-min occlusion of common carotid arteries followed by 1 or 24 h of reperfusion. Insulin (2-12 IU/kg i.v.) or the selective GSK-3beta inhibitor TDZD-8 (0.2-3 mg/kg i.v.) was administered during reperfusion. RESULTS: Insulin or TDZD-8 dramatically reduced infarct volume and levels of S100B protein, a marker of cerebral injury. Both drugs induced phosphorylation of the Ser9 residue, thereby inactivating GSK-3beta in the rat hippocampus. Insulin, but not TDZD-8, lowered blood glucose. The hippocampi of the drug-treated animals displayed reduced oxidative stress at 1 h of reperfusion as shown by the decreased generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. I/R-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB was attenuated by both drug treatments. At 24 h of reperfusion, TDZD-8 and insulin significantly reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha; neutrophil infiltration, measured as myeloperoxidase activity and intercellular-adhesion-molecule-1 expression; and cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible-NO-synthase expression. CONCLUSIONS: Acute administration of insulin or TDZD-8 reduced cerebral I/R injury in diabetic rats. We propose that the inhibitory effect on the activity of GSK-3beta contributes to the protective effect of insulin independently of any effects on blood glucose.
2009
58
235
242
Collino M; Aragno M; Castiglia S; Tomasinelli C; Thiemermann C; Boccuzzi G; Fantozzi R.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/99122
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