The Belvedere glacier (WGI code I4L01211009) is located in the Anzasca valley, Macugnaga, in the north-eastern sector of Piemonte (Italy). It is a debris covered glacier situated at the base of the high Monte Rosa east face. Its length is about 6 km and its maximum width is up to 500 m, with a surface of 5.58 km² and an average slope of 10°. The glacier main body is connected, in its upper part, with the Northern Locce, Signal and Monte Rosa Glaciers and it ends with a forked snout, reaching a minimum of altitude of 1770 m a.s.l.. Since the end of the XIX century, it has been studied and explored for the particular aspects of geodynamic phenomena of its glacial basin, connected with the overlying east face of Monte Rosa. Several phenomena of special interest occurred: at least seven outbursts and moraine collapse from August 1868 to July 1979, ice avalanches from above glaciers, a surge-type movement that had its culmination in the early 2000s and the formation of several glacial lakes, the largest of which was the supra-glacial lake “Effimero”, formed during the summers from 2001 to 2009, that reached its maximum in July 2002 (volume of about 3 million m³ and depth of 57 m). After the observed movement of surge and the formation of the “Effimero” lake several monitoring surveys have been carried out in order to check glacier dynamics during and after the event phase. Ablation, displacement, height loss and past dynamics were investigated by geomatic techniques, including differential GPS, terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry, allowing to quantify the monitored phenomena and help to better understand current glacier state. Moreover data were collected and computed by the employment of Geographical Information Systems which also allowed to represent glacier evolution in time.
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