Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid hormone in humans and plays a key role in maintaining water and electrolyte homeostasis. Primary aldosteronism (PA), characterized by autonomous aldosterone overproduction by the adrenal glands, affects 6% of the general hypertensive population and can be either sporadic or familial. Aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH) are the two most frequent subtypes of sporadic PA and 4 forms of familial hyperaldosteronism (FH-I to FH-IV) have been identified. Over the last six years, the introduction of next-generation sequencing has significantly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for autonomous aldosterone overproduction in both sporadic and familial PA. Somatic mutations in four genes (KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3 and CACNA1D), differently implicated in intracellular ion homeostasis, have been identified in nearly 60% of the sporadic APAs. Germline mutations in KCNJ5 and CACNA1H cause FH-III and FH-IV, respectively, while germline mutations in CACNA1D cause the rare PASNA syndrome, featuring primary aldosteronism seizures and neurological abnormalities. Further studies are warranted to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying BAH and FH-II, the most common forms of sporadic and familial PA whose molecular basis is yet to be uncovered.

The expanding genetic horizon of primary aldosteronism

Monticone, Silvia
First
;
Buffolo, Fabrizio;Tetti, Martina;Veglio, Franco;Pasini, Barbara;Mulatero, Paolo
Last
2018-01-01

Abstract

Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid hormone in humans and plays a key role in maintaining water and electrolyte homeostasis. Primary aldosteronism (PA), characterized by autonomous aldosterone overproduction by the adrenal glands, affects 6% of the general hypertensive population and can be either sporadic or familial. Aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH) are the two most frequent subtypes of sporadic PA and 4 forms of familial hyperaldosteronism (FH-I to FH-IV) have been identified. Over the last six years, the introduction of next-generation sequencing has significantly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for autonomous aldosterone overproduction in both sporadic and familial PA. Somatic mutations in four genes (KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3 and CACNA1D), differently implicated in intracellular ion homeostasis, have been identified in nearly 60% of the sporadic APAs. Germline mutations in KCNJ5 and CACNA1H cause FH-III and FH-IV, respectively, while germline mutations in CACNA1D cause the rare PASNA syndrome, featuring primary aldosteronism seizures and neurological abnormalities. Further studies are warranted to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying BAH and FH-II, the most common forms of sporadic and familial PA whose molecular basis is yet to be uncovered.
2018
178
3
R101
R111
http://www.eje-online.org/content/178/3/R101.full.pdf+html
Aldosterone; Calcium Channels, L-Type; G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels; Genetic Variation; Humans; Hyperaldosteronism; Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases; Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase; Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism; Endocrinology
Monticone, Silvia; Buffolo, Fabrizio; Tetti, Martina; Veglio, Franco; Pasini, Barbara; Mulatero, Paolo*
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1676796
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