Non enzymatic and enzymatic oxidation of lipids represents a primary issue in human pathophysiology, with special emphasis to dietary and nutritional-related aspects. Evergrowing attention is drawn by the oxidation of PUFA-3, mainly of marine origin, and PUFA-6. While there is no doubt that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main precursors of resolvins and protectins, do appear to exert anti-inflammatory, inflammation resolving and immunomodulatory effects in different model systems, on the other hand their oxidation during food storage and cooking as well as during gastrointestinal digestion, could give rise to excessive amounts of aldehydic endproducts, quite stable and highly diffusable from the gut into the blood circulation, such as 4- hydroxyhexenal (HHE). Any way, there is no doubt that non enzymatic oxidation of n-6 fatty acids is in principle by far more harmful, since its intermediate and endproducts, for instance 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) have been recognized as associated to the progression of a number of human diseases. Still, not easy is to achieve and maintain a suitable balance of PUFA-3, PUFA-6 and derived oxidation products in the body and different tissues. Another class of oxidized lipids, of primary pathophysiological importance as well, is stemming from the enzymatic and non enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol: the oxysterols. For many years, these 27-carbon molecules have been mainly considered for their physiological role played, for instance, in bile acid synthesis, steroid hormones biosynthesis, sterol transport, gene regulation. More recently, their potential contribution to the pathogenesis and the progression of those human diseases whose hypercholesterolemia is a primary risk factor, such as atheroclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and Inflammatory Bowel Disease, has been unanimously recognized. In general terms, excessive amounts of lipid oxidation products, mainly of not enzymatic origin might be harmful and favor the progression of major chronic diseases. Correct food supplementation with antioxidants and wise prevention or containment of inflammatory reactions appear valid strategies in this regard. Of note, pharmacological and/or nutritional interventions should pay attention to limit but not to abolish altogether the endogenous enzymatic formation of oxidized lipids, by this way preserving their physiological effects.

Lipid oxidation products in health and disease

Poli Giuseppe;Gamba Paola;Testa Gabriella;Sottero Barbara;Gargiulo Simona
2017

Abstract

Non enzymatic and enzymatic oxidation of lipids represents a primary issue in human pathophysiology, with special emphasis to dietary and nutritional-related aspects. Evergrowing attention is drawn by the oxidation of PUFA-3, mainly of marine origin, and PUFA-6. While there is no doubt that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main precursors of resolvins and protectins, do appear to exert anti-inflammatory, inflammation resolving and immunomodulatory effects in different model systems, on the other hand their oxidation during food storage and cooking as well as during gastrointestinal digestion, could give rise to excessive amounts of aldehydic endproducts, quite stable and highly diffusable from the gut into the blood circulation, such as 4- hydroxyhexenal (HHE). Any way, there is no doubt that non enzymatic oxidation of n-6 fatty acids is in principle by far more harmful, since its intermediate and endproducts, for instance 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) have been recognized as associated to the progression of a number of human diseases. Still, not easy is to achieve and maintain a suitable balance of PUFA-3, PUFA-6 and derived oxidation products in the body and different tissues. Another class of oxidized lipids, of primary pathophysiological importance as well, is stemming from the enzymatic and non enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol: the oxysterols. For many years, these 27-carbon molecules have been mainly considered for their physiological role played, for instance, in bile acid synthesis, steroid hormones biosynthesis, sterol transport, gene regulation. More recently, their potential contribution to the pathogenesis and the progression of those human diseases whose hypercholesterolemia is a primary risk factor, such as atheroclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and Inflammatory Bowel Disease, has been unanimously recognized. In general terms, excessive amounts of lipid oxidation products, mainly of not enzymatic origin might be harmful and favor the progression of major chronic diseases. Correct food supplementation with antioxidants and wise prevention or containment of inflammatory reactions appear valid strategies in this regard. Of note, pharmacological and/or nutritional interventions should pay attention to limit but not to abolish altogether the endogenous enzymatic formation of oxidized lipids, by this way preserving their physiological effects.
NLRCS International Congress
Mashhad, Iran
6-8 Settembre 2017
20
351
351
Poli Giuseppe, Gamba Paola, Testa Gabriella, Sottero Barbara, Gargiulo Simona
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1718079
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