The NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is the best recognized and most widely implicated regulator of caspase-1 activation. It is a key regulator of innate immune response and is involved in many pathophysiological processes. Recent evidences for its inappropriate activation in autoinflammatory, autoimmune, as well as in neurodegenerative diseases attract a growing interest toward the development of small molecules NLRP3 inhibitors. Based on the knowledge of biochemical and structural aspects of NLRP3 activation, one successful strategy in the identification of NLRP3 inhibitors relies on the development of covalent irreversible inhibitors. Covalent inhibitors are reactive electrophilic molecules able to alkylate nucleophiles in the target protein. These inhibitors could ensure good efficacy and prolonged duration of action both in vitro and in vivo. In spite of these advantages, effects on other signalling pathways, prone to alkylation, may occur. In this review, we will illustrate the chemistry and the biological action of the most studied covalent NLRP3 inhibitors developed so far. A description of what we know about their mechanism of action will address the reader toward a critical understanding of NLRP3 inhibition by electrophilic compounds.

Development of covalent NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors: chemistry and biological activity

Bertinaria Massimo
First
;
Gastaldi Simone;Marini Elisabetta;Giorgis Marta
2019

Abstract

The NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is the best recognized and most widely implicated regulator of caspase-1 activation. It is a key regulator of innate immune response and is involved in many pathophysiological processes. Recent evidences for its inappropriate activation in autoinflammatory, autoimmune, as well as in neurodegenerative diseases attract a growing interest toward the development of small molecules NLRP3 inhibitors. Based on the knowledge of biochemical and structural aspects of NLRP3 activation, one successful strategy in the identification of NLRP3 inhibitors relies on the development of covalent irreversible inhibitors. Covalent inhibitors are reactive electrophilic molecules able to alkylate nucleophiles in the target protein. These inhibitors could ensure good efficacy and prolonged duration of action both in vitro and in vivo. In spite of these advantages, effects on other signalling pathways, prone to alkylation, may occur. In this review, we will illustrate the chemistry and the biological action of the most studied covalent NLRP3 inhibitors developed so far. A description of what we know about their mechanism of action will address the reader toward a critical understanding of NLRP3 inhibition by electrophilic compounds.
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https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003986118305575?via=ihub
NLRP3 inflammasome, NLRP3 inhibitors, Covalent drugs, Irreversible inhibitors, Drug design
Bertinaria Massimo, Gastaldi Simone, Marini Elisabetta, Giorgis Marta
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1720025
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