Castanea species show high levels of diversity (morphological and ecological traits, vegetative and reproductive habits, wood characteristics, adaptability and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, etc.), reflecting the adaptation of the genus to different environmental conditions. Tree shape and form are variable. C. dentata and C. sativa are upright, tall, and slender trees, whilst other species are smaller, with round foliage and branches that start from the base. Other species are dwarf shrubs. Plants can live and be regularly productive for centuries. Some species grow rapidly and re-sprout quickly when cut. Nut size, peeling, and pulp characteristics vary greatly among species and cultivars, and represent important features in the food market. Chestnut is a good source of nutrients, and it has a steady consumption in the main producing countries. Due to its mineral elements and bioactive compounds, chestnut can be considered a health-promoting food.
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